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Randy J. Schmitz, Bryan L. Riemann and Timothy Thompson

Objective:

To determine whether gluteus medius (GM) activity increases in response to isometric closed-chain external hip rotation.

Design:

Subjects performed single-leg stances in 3 different conditions: 0° knee flexion, 0° hip flexion (C1); 0° knee flexion, 20° hip flexion (C2); and knee flexed 20–30°, 20° hip flexion (C3). Posteriorly directed forces of 8.9 N (F1), 17.8 N (F2), and 26.7 N (F3) were applied at the lateral pelvis of the nonstance side during each condition.

Subjects:

20 college students.

Measurements:

Surface EMG RMS amplitude from the GM and kinematic data from the trunk, hip, and knee.

Results:

Statistical analyses revealed a significant Condition 3 Force interaction and significant increases of EMG activity from C1F1 and C1F2 to C1F3 and from C3F1 to C3F2 and C3F3. F2 and F3 of C2 were significantly less than F2 and F3 of both C1 and C3.

Conclusions:

GM activity increases in response to isometric, closed-chain, external hip-rotation forces, and forward movement of the upper body with respect to the base of support decreases GM activity.

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Timothy J. Bungum, Melva Thompson-Robinson, Sheniz Moonie and Monica A.F. Lounsbery

Background:

Health behaviors of minority populations, including Hispanics, are important from a public health perspective because this subpopulation is growing and health behaviors of this subgroup are understudied. Physical activity is a component of healthy lifestyles and Hispanics have been shown to be less active than are Caucasians. It will be necessary to know correlates of physical activity to enhance the physical activity of this group. Recently, the importance of environmental and cultural factors has been recognized as correlates of physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

A 52-item telephone survey was employed to assess physical activity and its potential correlates.

Results:

The sample included 175 females and 156 males. Respondent ages ranged from 18 to 82 years (x = 38.39 ± 15.0). Approximately 20% of respondents were assigned to a “higher physical activity” group. Predictors of being in this group were having supportive environments, being acculturated, attending some college, and age.

Conclusions:

Providing environmental supports may be an effective strategy to enhance physical activity levels of adult Hispanics. Older Hispanics, those with lower educational attainments and those of lower acculturation should be targeted for intervention.

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Travis Saunders, Nerissa Campbell, Timothy Jason, Gail Dechman, Paul Hernandez, Kara Thompson and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

Although individual studies have reported on the number of steps/day taken by individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this evidence has not been systematically reviewed or synthesized.

Methods:

MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for studies reporting objectively-measured steps/day and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) in patients with COPD. Meta-analyses were used to estimate steps/day across studies, while metaregression was used to estimate between-study variance based on clinical and demographic factors (year and location of study, activity monitor brand, number of days wearing the monitor, whether participants were about to enter pulmonary rehabilitation, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), FEV1%, age, and sex).

Results:

38 studies including 2621 participants met inclusion criteria. The pooled mean estimate was 4579 steps/day (95% CI:4310 to 5208) for individuals with COPD. Only 6MWD, FEV1% and whether patients were about to undergo pulmonary rehabilitation explained a significant portion of the variance (P < 0.1) in univariate meta-regression. In a multivariate model including the above risk factors, only FEV1% was associated with steps/day after adjustment for other covariates.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that patients with COPD achieve extremely low levels of physical activity as assessed by steps/day, and that severity of airflow obstruction is associated with activity level.