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Tina L. Claiborne, Charles W. Armstrong, Varsha Gandhi and Danny M. Pincivero

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hip and knee strength, and valgus knee motion during a single leg squat. Thirty healthy adults (15 men, 15 women) stood on their preferred foot, squatted to approximately 60 deg of knee flexion, and returned to the standing position. Frontal plane knee motion was evaluated using 3-D motion analysis. During Session 2, isokinetic (60 deg/sec) concentric and eccentric hip (abduction/adduction, flexion/extension, and internal/external rotation) and knee (flexion/extension) strength was evaluated. The results demonstrated that hip abduction (r 2 = 0.13), knee flexion (r 2 = 0.18), and knee extension (r 2 = 0.14) peak torque were significant predictors of frontal plane knee motion. Significant negative correlations showed that individuals with greater hip abduction (r = –0.37), knee flexion (r = –0.43), and knee extension (r = –0.37) peak torque exhibited less motion toward the valgus direction. Men exhibited significantly greater absolute peak torque for all motions, excluding eccentric internal rotation. When normalized to body mass, men demonstrated significantly greater strength than women for concentric hip adduction and flexion, knee flexion and extension, and eccentric hip extension. The major findings demonstrate a significant role of hip muscle strength in the control of frontal plane knee motion.

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Tina Claiborne, Su-I Hou and Thomas Cappaert

Column-editor : Elizabeth Swann

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Anthony Rossi, Tina Claiborne and Jamie Fetter

A 19-year-old male collegiate wrestler was diagnosed with bicuspid aortic valve disease and aortic insufficiency due to the presence of an aortic-ventricular tunnel. The athlete underwent an electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiogram, as well as a diagnostic ultrasound of his carotid arteries and abdominal aorta in order to diagnose this underlying structural abnormality. This diagnosis resulted in the athlete being disqualified for the remainder of the wrestling season and undergoing open-heart surgery to repair his bicuspid aortic valve. This case study will explain the events surrounding the recognition of this disease as well as advocate for the use of cardiac screening in preparticipation exams (PPEs). It is imperative that we implement more advanced diagnostic testing in the PPEs of young athletes in order to diagnose underlying structural heart abnormalities that may lead to sudden cardiac death.

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Anthony Rossi, Tina Claiborne and Jamie Fetter

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of sudden death in young athletes. It has been estimated that SCD occurs three times more often in athletes than in nonathletes and is defined as a sudden unexpected death due to a previously undiagnosed cardiac structural abnormality. The precise incidence of SCD is unclear, but various studies have estimated that 2–3% of the general population have some cardiovascular anomaly and that the SCD rate in athletes ranges from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 athletes per year. According to the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) position statement on preventing sudden death, a report from the National Collegiate Athletic Association stated that the SCD rate in student-athletes is slightly higher, at 1:43,000 per year.

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Bradley Smith, Tina Claiborne and Victor Liberi

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ankle bracing on vertical jump performance and lower extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) activity. Twenty healthy college athletes participated in two sessions, separated by a minimum of 24 hr. They performed five jumps with no brace on the first day, and five jumps with both ankles braced on the second day. An average of the three highest jumps each day was used for analysis. Braced vertical jump performance significantly decreased (p = .002) as compared with the unbraced condition. In addition, hip flexion (p = .043) and ankle plantar flexion (p = .001) angles were significantly smaller during the braced vertical jump. There was also a significant reduction in soleus muscle EMG (p = .002) during the braced condition.