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  • Author: Tomás T. Freitas x
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Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Elena Marín-Cascales, Tomás T. Freitas, Jorge Perez-Gomez and Pedro E. Alcaraz

Purpose: To describe the load–velocity relationship and the effects of increasing loads on spatiotemporal and derived kinetic variables of sprinting using weighted vests (WV) in soccer players and determining the load that maximizes power output. Methods: A total of 23 soccer players (age 20.8 [1.5] y) performed 10 maximal 30-m sprints wearing a WV with 5 different loads (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% body mass [BM]). Sprint velocity and time were collected using a radar device and wireless photocells. Mechanical outputs were computed using a recently developed valid and reliable field method that estimates the step-averaged ground-reaction forces during overground sprint acceleration from anthropometric and spatiotemporal data. Raw velocity–time data were fitted by an exponential function and used to calculate the net horizontal ground-reaction forces and horizontal power output. Individual linear force–velocity relationships were then extrapolated to calculate the theoretical maximum horizontal force (F 0) and velocity and the ratio of force application (proportion of the total force production that is directed forward at sprint start). Results: Magnitude-based inferences showed an almost certain decrease in F 0 (effect size = 0.78–3.35), maximum power output (effect size = 0.78–3.81), and maximum ratio of force (effect size = 0.82–3.87) as the load increased. The greatest changes occurred with loads heavier than 20% BM, especially in ratio of force. In addition, the maximum power was achieved under unloaded conditions. Conclusions: Increasing load in WV sprinting affects spatiotemporal and kinetic variables. The greatest change in ratio of force happened with loads heavier than 20% BM. Thus, the authors recommend the use of loads ≤20% BM for WV sprinting.

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Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Jorge Perez-Gomez, Ola Eriksrud, Tomás T. Freitas, Elena Marín-Cascales and Pedro E. Alcaraz

Purpose: To analyze and compare the effects of 4 different resisted sprint training (RST) modalities on youth soccer players’ performance after 8 weeks of training. Methods: Forty-eight youth soccer players were first randomly assigned to 4 groups and only then completed 8 weeks of RST: horizontal resisted sprint, vertical resisted sprint (VRS), combined resisted sprint, and unresisted sprint. Performance in horizontal and vertical jumps, sprint, and change of direction (COD) ability were assessed 1 week before and after the training intervention. Magnitude-based inference analysis was performed for calculating within-group pre–post differences. In addition, an analysis of covariance test was performed for between-group comparison, using the pretest values as covariates. After that, the analysis of covariance P values and the effect statistic were transformed to magnitude-based inference. Results: Within-group outcomes showed that all resisted training modalities experienced improvements in sprint (small to moderate) and COD (small to large) performance. Moreover, all groups, except unresisted sprint, enhanced the horizontal jump performance. However, only VRS improved on vertical jump. Between-group comparison outcomes revealed that only VRS improved the sprint time compared with horizontal resisted sprint (moderate) and COD performance compared with all groups (moderate to large). In addition, VRS enhanced the countermovement jump performance (small to large) compared with the other groups. Conclusions: Independent of the orientation of the resistance applied, RST is an effective training method for improving sprinting and COD performance. Nevertheless, VRS may promote greater improvements on sprint and COD ability and have a positive additional effect on countermovement jump performance and the reduction of COD deficit.