Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) manifests as muscle soreness, inflammation, and reductions in force generating capacity that can last for several days after exercise. The ability to recover and repair damaged tissues following EIMD is impaired with age, with older adults (≥50 years old) experiencing a slower rate of recovery than their younger counterparts do for the equivalent exercise bout. This narrative review discusses the literature examining the effect of nutritional or pharmacological supplements taken to counter the potentially debilitating effects of EIMD in older adults. Studies have assessed the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin C and/or E, or higher protein diets on recovery in older adults. Each intervention showed some promise for attenuating EIMD, but, overall, there is a paucity of available data in this population, and more studies are required to determine the influence of nutrition or pharmacological interventions on EIMD in older adults.
William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn and Tom Clifford
Purpose: To examine whether consuming casein protein (CP) before sleep would enhance recovery after a nighttime soccer match in professional players. Methods: In a randomized, crossover design, 10 professional soccer players from the reserve squad of a team in the highest tier of English soccer consumed 40 g of CP or 40 g of carbohydrates (CON) 30 min presleep after a soccer match (kick off: 7 PM). To assess recovery, countermovement-jump height, reactive strength index, muscle soreness, and the adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) Questionnaire were measured before and 12, 36, and 60 h after each match. Dietary intake across the testing period was also recorded. Results: There were unclear differences in external load in the matches and dietary intake between CON and CP. Casein protein had a most likely and likely beneficial effect on countermovement-jump recovery at 12 and 36 h postmatch (CP −1.6; ±1.2% vs CON −6.6; ±1.7%; −4.1; ±2.3% vs −0.4; ±1.1%, respectively). Reactive strength index recovery was most likely enhanced with CP at 12 and 36 h postmatch, and muscle soreness, as measured with a visual analog scale (in millimeters), was most likely greater in CON versus CP at 12 h postmatch (72; ±17 vs 42; ±20 mm). BAM+ was possibly lower in CON at 36 h postmatch but unaffected at other time points. Conclusions: Presleep CP accelerates functional recovery in professional soccer players and, therefore, provides a practical means of attenuating performance deficits in the days after a match.
William Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford
To investigate the effects of tart cherry juice (TCJ) on recovery from a soccer match in professional players.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 10 male professional soccer players from the reserve team of an English Premier League Club (age 19 ± 1 y, height 1.8 ± 0.6 m, body mass 77.3 ± 6.4 kg) consumed 2 × 30-mL servings of TCJ or an isocaloric cherry-flavored control drink (CON) before and after a 90-min match, and 12 and 36 h after the match. Muscle function (countermovement jump-height [CMJ], reactive strength index [RSI]), subjective well-being, and subjective muscle soreness (MS) were measured before and 12, 36, and 60 h after each match.
CMJ height was similarly reduced in the days after the match after TCJ and CON supplementation, with the greatest loss occurring at 12 h postmatch (–5.9% ± 3.1% vs –5.4% ± 2.9% of baseline values, respectively; P = .966, η p 2 = .010). Decrements in RSI were also greatest at 12 h postmatch (TCJ –9.4% ± 8.4% vs CON –13.9% ± 4.8% of baseline values), but no group differences were observed at any time point (P = .097, η p 2 = .205). MS increased 12–60 h postmatch in both groups, peaking at 12 h postmatch (TCJ 122 ± 27 mm vs CON 119 ± 22 mm), but no group differences were observed (P = .808, η p 2 = .024). No interaction effects were observed for subjective well-being (P = .874, η p 2 = .025).
Tart cherry juice did not hasten recovery after a soccer match in professional players. These findings bring into question the use of TCJ as a recovery aid in professional soccer players.
Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Glyn Howatson and Malachy P. McHugh
Purpose: To examine whether donning lower-body garments fitted with cooled phase change material (PCM) would enhance recovery after a soccer match. Methods: In a randomized, crossover design, 11 elite soccer players from the reserve squad of a team in the second-highest league in England wore PCM cooled to 15°C (PCMcold) or left at ambient temperature (PCMamb; sham control) for 3 h after a soccer match. To assess recovery, countermovement jump height, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), muscle soreness, and the adapted Brief Assessment of Mood Questionnaire (BAM+) were measured before 12, 36, and 60 h after each match. A belief questionnaire was completed preintervention and postintervention to determine the perceived effectiveness of each garment. Results: Results are comparisons between the 2 conditions at each time point postmatch. MIVC at 36 h postmatch was greater with PCMcold versus PCMwarm (P = .01; ES = 1.59; 95% CI, 3.9–17.1%). MIVC also tended to be higher at 60 h postmatch (P = .05; ES = 0.85; 95% CI, −0.4% to 11.1%). Muscle soreness was 26.5% lower in PCMcold versus PCMwarm at 36 h (P = .02; ES = 1.7; 95% CI, −50.4 to −16.1 mm) and 24.3% lower at 60 h (P = .04; ES = 1.1; 95% CI, −26.9 to −0.874 mm). There were no between-conditions differences in postmatch countermovement jump height or BAM+ (P > .05). The belief questionnaire revealed that players felt the PCMcold was more effective than the PCMamb after the intervention (P = .004). Conclusions: PCM cooling garments provide a practical means of delivering prolonged postexercise cooling and thereby accelerate recovery in elite soccer players.
Malachy P. McHugh, Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Ian J. Kremenic, Joseph J. DeVita and Glyn Howatson
Purpose: To assess the utility of an inertial sensor for assessing recovery in professional soccer players. Methods: In a randomized, crossover design, 11 professional soccer players wore shorts fitted with phase change material (PCM) cooling packs or uncooled packs (control) for 3 h after a 90-min match. Countermovement jump (CMJ) performance was assessed simultaneously with an inertial sensor and an optoelectric system: prematch and 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch. Inertial sensor metrics were flight height, jump height, low force, countermovement distance, force at low point, rate of eccentric force development, peak propulsive force, maximum power, and peak landing force. The only optoelectric metric was flight height. CMJ decrements and the effect of PCM cooling were assessed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Jump heights were also compared between devices. Results: For the inertial sensor data, there were decrements in CMJ height on the days after matches (88% [10%] of baseline at 36 h, P = .012, effect size = 1.2, for control condition) and accelerated recovery with PCM cooling (105% [15%] of baseline at 36 h, P = .018 vs control, effect size = 1.1). Flight heights were strongly correlated between devices (r = .905, P < .001), but inertial sensor values were 1.8 [1.8] cm lower (P = .008). Low force during countermovement was increased (P = .031) and landing force was decreased (P = .043) after matches, but neither was affected by the PCM cooling intervention. Other CMJ metrics were unchanged after matches. Conclusions: This small portable inertial sensor provides a practical means of assessing recovery in soccer players.