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Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Paulina Jurga, Tomasz Piontek, Honorata Jakubowska and Tomasz Kotwicki

Context: Female football is becoming an increasingly popular women’s team sports discipline around the world. The Women’s Football Committee in the Polish Football Association has developed a long-term strategic plan to popularize the discipline across the country and enhance girls’ participation. On one hand, it is postulated to increase the number of female footballers, and on the other hand, it is crucial to decrease the number of girls quitting football prematurely. Objective: To find the reasons for sports career termination among female football players. Design: Cross-sectional with retrospective information about reasons of career termination. Setting: Online questionnaire was filled out by online access. Participants: Ninety-three former female footballers. Main Outcome Measures: Factors leading to career termination. Methods: Participants completed the online questionnaire. The analysis was performed referring to 2 groups: “injury group”—in which the injury was the main reason for quitting football, and “other group”—in which the female player stopped playing football due to all other factors. Results: Thirty percent of former Polish female football players terminated their career due to a long-term treatment for an injury. Over 27% (27.7%) females had ended their careers because they were not able to reconcile sports with work/studying. Over 10% (10.8%) of former football players reported that becoming a wife and/or mother was the reason for career termination. Losing motivation and interest in the sport was reported by 9.2% (n = 6) of present study participants who decided to terminate the career due to noninjury reasons. Conclusions: The results clearly show that more effort is needed to support female football players, especially after an injury, so that they do not quit the sport voluntarily.

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Ewa Kaminska, Tomasz Piontek, Marzena Wiernicka, Grazyna Cywinska-Wasilewska, Jacek Lewandowski and Dawid Lochynski

Context:

The extent of knee extensor and flexor weakness after disruption of knee ligaments affects a rehabilitation output and functional recovery and may give prognostic information on a possible risk of development of knee osteoarthritis.

Objective:

The hypothesis tested was whether patients with a multiple-ligament tear would have larger abnormalities in strength of the knee extensors and flexors than patients with an isolated-ligament rupture.

Design:

Cross-sectional study, level III.

Setting:

Outpatient orthopedic clinic.

Participants:

3 groups of recreationally active men: noninjured control (CON, n = 12), with an anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI, n = 10), and with combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injury (APCLI, n = 9), matched according to age, body mass, and height.

Intervention:

All patients received conservative treatment and rehabilitation and awaited ligament reconstruction surgery.

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic maximum-repetition peak torque per body mass (PT/BM) and total work (TW), PT and TW limb-symmetry index (LSI), and flexor-to-extensor PT ratio were evaluated during concentric knee extension-flexion movements at lower (60°/s) and higher (240°/s) isokinetic velocities.

Results:

The main finding was that compared with the individuals with ACLI, patients with APCLI produced in their injured limbs lower mean TW (extension: 30.3%, flexion: 28.2%) and had lower mean TW LSI (extension 74% in APCLI vs 91.6% in ACLI; flexion 61.3% in APCLI vs 90.8% in ACLI) at the higher but not lower speed of isokinetic testing. However, at the lower velocity the quantified size of reduction in PT/BM and TW was greater in subjects with APCLI than ACLI as compared with the CON individuals.

Conclusions:

After bi-cruciate-ligament injury the capacity to produce torque by concentric muscle contractions throughout knee-extension and-flexion movements performed with high speed is lower in injured limbs than after isolated anterior cruciate ligament tear.