Context: Deficits in knee position sense following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can delay an athlete’s return to sport participation and increase the risk of reinjury. Deficits in position sense postreconstruction have been evaluated using either a position-reproducing or position-matching task. Objective: The aim of our study was to combine both to determine which assessment would be more effective to identify deficits in knee position sense. Design: Longitudinal laboratory-based study. Participants: Eleven athletes (6 men and 5 women; mean age, 20.5 [1.2] y), who had undergone ACL reconstruction with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft, and 12 age-matched controls. Interventions: Position sense was evaluated at 6 and 12 months postreconstruction and once for the control group. In addition, peak isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, at 60°/s and 180°/s, was assessed for the ACL reconstruction group to evaluate possible influences of muscle strength on knee joint position sense. Main Outcome Measures: The variables include the angular differences between the reference limb and indicator limb, and peak torque values of isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Results: Significant matching differences were identified at 6 months postsurgery on the position-matching task, but not at 12 months postsurgery. No significant between-group and within-subject differences were identified on the position-reproducing task. No significant matching errors were identified for the control group. There was no correlation between errors in position sense and maximum isokinetic strength. Conclusion: The position-matching task is more sensitive than the position-reproducing task to identify deficits in knee position sense over the first year following ACL reconstruction surgery.
Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi
Mako Fukano, Yuji Kuroyanagi, Toru Fukubayashi and Scott Banks
The bones and soft tissues of the foot act as a shock attenuator and the relative bony motions of the talocrural and subtalar joints are the subject of research interest for their roles in lower extremity pathology. Despite this interest, little information exists on the precise in vivo talocrural and subtalar joint kinematics during dynamic activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the three-dimensional kinematics of the talocrural and subtalar joints during landing by using single-plane fluoroscopic imaging and shape matching techniques. Three-dimensional bone positions for 6 subjects during landing from a 10 cm height were determined by using 3D-2D model-image registration techniques. The primary talocrural joint motion after toe contact was dorsiflexion with rotation ranges averaging 12° ± 7° dorsiflexion, 2° ± 2° eversion, and 3° ± 2° internal rotation. The subtalar joint exhibited similar patterns of increased dorsiflexion, eversion, and external rotation up to 150 ms after landing. The angular changes were 5° ± 3° dorsiflexion, 7° ± 3° eversion, and 6° ± 2° external rotation. This study contributes to the quantitative understanding of the function of the normal talocrural and subtalar joints and can be used for comparison with data obtained from injured feet.