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Sean R. Schumm, N. Travis Triplett, Jeffrey M. McBride and Charles L. Dumke

This investigation examined the anabolic-hormone response to carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation at rest and after resistance exercise. Nine recreationally trained men randomly underwent 4 testing conditions: rest with placebo (RPL), rest with CHO (RCHO), resistance exercise with placebo (EPL), and resistance exercise with CHO (ECHO). The resistance-exercise protocol was four sets of Smith machine squats with a 10-repetition-maximum load, with 90-s rests between sets. Participants then consumed either a placebo or CHO (24% CHO, 1.5 g/kg) drink. Blood was taken before exercise (Pre), immediately after testing (Post), and then 15 (15P), 30 (30P), and 60 (60P) min after drink ingestion. Blood was analyzed for cortisol, glucose, insulin, and total testosterone (TTST). Cortisol did not change significantly in any condition. Glucose concentrations increased significantly from Pre to 15P and 30P during RCHO and Pre to 15P, 30P, and 60P in ECHO (p ≤&.05). Insulin concentrations increased significantly from Pre to 15P, 30P, and 60P in the RCHO and ECHO conditions (p ≤&.05). There were no significant changes in TTST concentrations during RPL or RCHO. Both EPL and ECHO demonstrated a significant elevation in TTST concentrations from Pre to Post (p ≤&.05). During ECHO, TTST concentrations at 60P were significantly lower than Pre levels (p ≤&.05), but there were no significant treatment differences in TTST concentrations at any time point during the EPL and ECHO conditions. Ingesting CHO after resistance exercise resulted in decreased TTST concentrations during recovery, although the mechanism is unclear.

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James L. Nuzzo, Michael J. Cavill, N. Travis Triplett and Jeffrey M. McBride

The primary purpose of this investigation was to provide a descriptive analysis of lower-body strength and vertical jump performance in overweight male (n = 8) and female (n = 13) adolescents. Maximal strength was tested in the leg press and isometric squat. Kinetic and kinematic variables were assessed in vertical jumps at various loads. When compared with females, males demonstrated significantly greater (p ≤ .05) absolute maximal strength in the leg press. However, when maximal strength was expressed relative to body mass, no significant difference was observed. There were no significant differences between males and females in vertical jump performance at body mass.

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John Quindry, Lindsey Miller, Graham McGinnis, Megan Irwin, Charles Dumke, Meir Magal, N. Travis Triplett, Jeffrey McBride and Zea Urbiztondo

Acute strength exercise elicits a transient oxidative stress, but the factors underlying the magnitude of this response remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle-fiber type relates to the magnitude of blood oxidative stress after eccentric muscle activity. Eleven college-age men performed 3 sets of 50 eccentric knee-extensions. Blood samples taken pre-, post-, and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise were assayed for comparison of muscle damage and oxidative-stress biomarkers including protein carbonyls (PCs). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were assayed for relative percentage of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. There was a mixed fiber composition (Type I = 39.6% ± 4.5%, Type IIa = 35.7% ± 3.5%, Type IIx = 24.8% ± 3.8%; p = .366). PCs were elevated 24, 48, and 72 hr (p = .032) postexercise, with a peak response of 126% (p = .012) above baseline, whereas other oxidative-stress biomarkers were unchanged. There are correlations between Type II muscle-fiber type and postexercise PC. Further study is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the observed fast-twitch muscle-fiber oxidative-stress relationship.

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Keith B. Painter, Gregory G. Haff, Mike W. Ramsey, Jeff McBride, Travis Triplett, William A. Sands, Hugh S. Lamont, Margaret E. Stone and Michael H. Stone

Recently, the comparison of “periodized” strength training methods has been a focus of both exercise and sport science. Daily undulating periodization (DUP), using daily alterations in repetitions, has been developed and touted as a superior method of training, while block forms of programming for periodization have been questioned. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare block to DUP in Division I track and field athletes. Thirty-one athletes were assigned to either a 10-wk block or DUP training group in which sex, year, and event were matched. Over the course of the study, there were 4 testing sessions, which were used to evaluate a variety of strength characteristics. Although performance trends favored the block group for strength and rate of force development, no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 training groups. However, statistically different (P ≤ .05) values were found for estimated volume of work (volume load) and the amount of improvement per volume load between block and DUP groups. Based on calculated training efficiency scores, these data indicate that a block training model is more efficient than a DUP model in producing strength gains.

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William J. Kraemer, N. Travis Triplett, Andrew C. Fry, L. Perry koziris, Jeffrey E. Bauer, James M. Lynch, Tim McConnell, Robert U. Newton, Scott E. Gordon, Richard C. Nelson and Howard G. Knuttgen

The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth sports medicine profile of women college tennis players and determine the relationships among an array of performance and clinical variables. Thirty-eight non-resistance-trained women from NCAA Divisions I and III collegiate tennis teams participated. A comprehensive battery of performance tests was conducted on each subject, including measurements of dynamic, isometric, and isokinetic strength; joint laxity and flexibility; speed; agility; power and power endurance; peak oxygen consumption; body composition; and ball velocities of the serve, forehand, and backhand. It was found that no single variable strongly explains tennis performance. The low amount of shared variance of strength measures with ball velocities suggests that tennis skills play a large role in producing peak ball velocities in this group. Due to the large range observed in profiled variables, individual evaluation is needed for clinical and conditioning recommendations.