This study examined the structure of the transtheoretical model (TM) in exercise behavior change among adults age 50–65 years (n = 583). The purpose was to examine the relationship between stage of change and the constructs of processes of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance. The results showed that 5 of the 10 processes of change, self-efficacy, and both pros and cons make significant and unique contributions to discrimination between the stages. Specifically, the use of the processes of change was shown to fluctuate across the stages, self-efficacy was shown to increase from precontemplation to maintenance, and the balance between pros and cons was shown to change from precontemplation to maintenance. The similarity of these results to previous literature suggests that the process of behavior change hypothesized within the TM holds across different age groups and cultures. Several implications for intervention design and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Trish Gorely and Sandy Gordon
Charlotte L. Edwardson and Trish Gorely
This study examined the relationship between activity-related parenting practices and children’s objectively measured physical activity (PA) in 117 UK children (mean age 8.3 ± 0.95). No significant gender differences in the mean level of activity support were identified although it was found that mothers and fathers favored different activity-related parenting practices. Mothers provided higher levels of limiting sedentary behavior for both boys and girls compared with fathers as well as higher levels of logistic support for girls than fathers. Results showed that for boys, paternal explicit modeling was significantly associated with MVPA (r = .31) and VPA (r = .37). Overall, mothers and fathers favored different activity-related parenting practices when encouraging their children to be active and explicit modeling from fathers appears to be important in shaping physical activity in boys.
Trish Gorely, Sandy Gordon, and Ian Ford
Kate Goodger, Trish Gorely, David Lavallee, and Chris Harwood
The purpose of the present review was to provide an up-to-date summary of the burnout-in-sport literature. The last published reviews were in 1989 (Fender) and 1990 (Dale & Weinberg). In order to appreciate the status of current knowledge and understanding and to identify potential future directions, the authors conducted a synthesis of published work using a systematic-review methodology. Findings comprised 3 sections: sample characteristics, correlates, and research designs and data collection. A total of 58 published studies were assessed, most of which focused on athletes (n = 27) and coaches (n = 23). Correlates were grouped into psychological, demographic, and situational factors and were summarized as positively, negatively, indeterminate, and nonassociated with burnout. Self-report measures and cross-sectional designs have dominated research. The authors conclude by summarizing the key findings in the literature and highlighting the gaps that could be filled by future research.
Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Natalie Pearson, and Andrew Atkin
To progress physical activity (PA) social support research using objective measures of PA, attention should be turned to specific segments of the day (eg, after school or weekends) in which young people spend the majority of their time with parents or friends. Furthermore, the majority of previous research has focused on the influence of parents and peers. The current study examined gender and age differences in 5 sources of activity-related social support and their relationship with objectively measured after-school and weekend PA among adolescents.
328 adolescents aged 12–16 years (57% boys) wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a questionnaire assessing support for PA. After-school and weekend PA were extracted.
Adolescents perceived more support from their peers compared with other sources and boys perceived more peer support than girls. Younger adolescents perceived greater amounts of family support and explicit modeling from both mother and father; however, logistic support appeared constant throughout adolescence. After controlling for gender and age, peer support was a significant influence on after-school MVPA.
Findings suggest that there may be benefit in encouraging adolescents to participate in PA in the after-school period with their peers.
Trish Gorely, Anne Jobling, Kellie Lewis, and David Bruce
The purpose was to develop an evaluative case study of six 3-hr sessions, spaced over 3 months, of psychological skills training (PST) provided to athletes with an intellectual disability who were training for the Basketball Australia State Championships. Participants were 7 males and 7 females, aged 15.8 to 27.1 years, with a receptive language level of 7 to 13.7 years, 2 female coaches, 2 psychologists, and 1 registered psychologist supervisor. Sessions focused specifically on stress management, with primary attention given to cue words, breathing techniques, and positive thinking. Findings, based on interviews and participant observations, revealed that all participants believed that the PST was appropriate and worthwhile.
Trish Gorely, Stuart Biddle, Simon Marshall, Noel Cameron, and Louise Cassey
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between distance to school and levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in UK adolescents. Participants were 1385 adolescents (boys n = 531; mean age 14.7 years). Boys living within two miles of school and girls living within 5 miles of school were more likely to report high levels (≥60 min per day) of weekday leisure time physical activity. Differences in weekday leisure time physical activity were accounted for by active travel time. There were no differences in sedentary behavior time by distance to school. Journeys, whether active or motorized, most often took place with friends. Further research should investigate wider physical and social environmental influences on active travel.
Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Hayley Musson, Rebecca Duncombe, and Rachel Sandford
Previous research has shown a positive relationship between activity-related social support provided by parents and peers and adolescents’ physical activity. However, more information is needed on whether activity-related social support differs by sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in activity-related social support in a sample of adolescents, by characteristics such as age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and physical activity level and to determine which characteristics are the most important predictors of activity-related social support.
Information was provided by 578 boys and 588 girls (11–14 years) on demographic factors, physical activity, and activity-related support. ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression were performed to address the purposes of the study.
Boys, White British, younger, more physically active, and high-SES adolescents perceived more support for physical activity. Age predicted all types of support excluding peer support; ethnicity predicted mother logistic support and sibling support; gender predicted peer support, father explicit modeling, and father logistic support; and SES predicted mother and father logistic support.
Families and peers of adolescents who are female, from Black and minority ethnic groups, older, of low-SES, and less active should be targeted for intervention.
Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter, and Stuart D. Galloway
Background: Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are prescribed programs to tackle physical inactivity and associated noncommunicable disease. Inconsistencies in reporting, recording, and delivering ERS make it challenging to identify what works, why, and for whom. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided this narrative review of reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of ERS. Inclusion criteria and quality assessed through A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). Data on uptake, attendance, and adherence were extracted. Results: Eleven reviews met inclusion criteria. AMSTAR quality was medium. Uptake ranged between 35% and 81%. Groups more likely to take up ERS included (1) females and (2) older adults. Attendance ranged from 12% to 49%. Men were more likely to attend ERS. Effect of medical diagnosis upon uptake and attendance was inconsistent. Exercises prescribed were unreported; therefore, adherence to exercise prescriptions was unreported. The influence of theoretically informed approaches on uptake, attendance, and adherence was generally lacking; however, self-determination, peer support, and supervision were reported as influencing attendance. Conclusions: There was insufficient reporting across studies about uptake, attendance, and adherence. Complex interventions such as ERS require consistent definitions, recording, and reporting of these key facets, but this is not evident from the existing literature.
Andrew J. Atkin, Trish Gorely, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Simon J. Marshall, and Noel Cameron
The present study examined physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of adolescents between 15.30h and 18.30h. The sample for this study is 1,484 (boys: n = 561; girls: n = 923). Boys and girls reported 21 and 19 min of physical activity and 24 and 26 min of homework respectively during this period. Technology-based sedentary behavior (TV viewing, computer and video game use) was significantly higher in boys than girls (boys = 50 mins; girls = 35 mins; p < .05). The most prevalent behaviors after school are technology-based sedentary behavior, homework and physical activity. During these hours, engagement in physical activity does not appear to displace time spent doing homework.