This study looked at the influence of a Sport Education intervention program on students’ motivational responses in a high school physical education setting. Two intact groups were assigned curricular interventions: the Sport Education group (n = 25), which received eight 60-min lessons, and the comparison group (n = 26), which received a traditional teaching approach to sport-based activity. Pre- and postintervention measures of student enjoyment, perceived effort, perceived competence, goal orientations, perceived motivational climate, and perceived autonomy were obtained for both groups. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed significant increases in student enjoyment and perceived effort in the Sport Education group only. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that increases in task-involving climate and perceived autonomy explained a significant amount of unique variance in the Sport Education students’ postintervention enjoyment, perceived effort, and perceived competence responses. The results suggest that the Sport Education curriculum may increase perceptions of a task-involving climate and perceived autonomy, and in so doing, enhance the motivation of high school students toward physical education.
Tristan L. Wallhead and Nikos Ntoumanis
Peter A. Hastie and Tristan Wallhead
This paper provides a potential roadmap for the future development of research on Sport Education. In the first part of the paper, research on each of the elements of competence, literacy and enthusiasm are reviewed, with the aim of providing evidence to support the idea that the model can achieve its goals. For each of these goals we provide some potential directions which we believe are important for moving research on Sport Education forward.
These avenues include more attention to appropriate practices for enhancing student-coach effectiveness, ways to enhance the development of more equitable and inclusive class environments within the model, as well as the potential transfer of Sport Education experiences to physical activity environments beyond physical education.
Research designs need to include how teachers and students give value and significance to what they teach and what they learn, respectively. This could be achieved through researchers considering more prolonged action-based research designs that allow a close monitoring of the implementation of pedagogical approaches. These case studies can provide guidance for future pedagogical iterations of the model that can be applied within more generalizable group designs.
Bomna Ko, Tristan Wallhead, and Phillip Ward
Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead, and Tucker Readdy
One of the primary goals of physical education is for students to gain the motivation to continue to be physically active outside of curriculum time. The purpose of this study was to use a case study approach to examine elementary students’ responses to Sport Education and how it influenced their choice to participate in the same sports during lunch recess. The Trans-Contextual Model of motivation (TCM) was used as a deductive lens to qualitatively examine this synergy. Findings revealed that Sport Education was effective in satisfying the students’ basic psychological needs in physical education and specifically promoting male students’ participation in the lunch recess context. Sport Education has the potential to promote trans-contextual participation if students’ autonomy support is also facilitated within the extra-curricular sport context.
John Hennings, Tristan Wallhead, and Mark Byra
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) strategies, such as the reciprocal style of teaching, have been shown to be effective in developing motor skills. Despite this research, little is currently understood of how PAL strategies influence the teaching-learning process. The purpose of this study was to use a didactic methodology (Amade-Escot, 2005) to examine the content taught and learned by two pairs of undergraduate students participating in reciprocal style (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002) episodes of indoor climbing. The didactic protocol included collecting data regarding student intentions, actions and interpretations of content, and the identification of problematic episodes in the teaching-learning process or Critical Didactic Incidents. The participants’ improved their knowledge and performance of lower complexity climbing skills. Participants’ failure to construct more sophisticated climbing content was as a result of deficiencies in the peer observer’s in-task error diagnosis feedback and teaching style imposed constraints on teacher intervention.
Tristan Wallhead, Alex C. Garn, Carla Vidoni, and Charli Youngberg
Sport Education has embedded pedagogical strategies proposed to reduce the prevalence of amotivation in physical education. The purpose of this study was to provide an examination of the game play participation rates of amotivated students within a Sport Education season. A sample of 395 high school students participated in a season of team handball. A multistep cluster analysis approach revealed three motivational profiles: amotivated, moderate and high clusters. A priori analyses revealed differences in perceived effort, enjoyment, and need satisfaction across the three profile groups. Game play participation rates coded throughout the season revealed no significant differences in ball engagement or success rates across motivational profile groups. A significant difference occurred in active game participation between the high and amotivated students. Results suggest that Sport Education elicits a level of inclusive game play participation across students of different motivational profiles.
Dean Barker, Tristan Wallhead, Sheri Brock, Victoria Goodyear, and Chantal Amade-Escot
Student group work is a central feature of many contemporary pedagogical approaches to teaching physical education. Despite this proliferation, our understanding of the teaching-learning dynamics inherent in group work remains limited and has tended to be under-theorized. The purpose of this paper was to examine different theoretical approaches to group work to identify similarities and differences and consequently provide insights and recommendations into ways of using group work as a pedagogical strategy. Four theoretical approaches to group work models were described in detail with brief empirical examples used to illustrate aspects to which each approach draws attention. The examination demonstrates conceptual overlap, elaboration and distinctions between the theoretical approaches related to: (i) content knowledge; (ii) engaging learners; (iii) the teacher’s role; and (iv) group composition. Meta-theoretical discussions of teaching strategies such as group work generate important discourse on the potential for the development of effective pedagogical practice.
Siu-Ming Choi, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum, Tristan Wallhead, Amy Sau-Ching Ha, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Deng-Yau Shy, and Feng-Min Wei
Physical education teacher education is a time when preservice teachers can reinforce their physical literacy (PL). Professional coursework within the teacher preparation program should also develop their teaching efficacy. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between preservice physical education teachers’ perceived PL and teaching efficacy. The findings revealed that the PL dimension of self-expression and communication with others was the most significant predictor of teaching efficacy in developing content knowledge, applying scientific knowledge to teaching, teaching students with special needs, and using technology. Furthermore, preservice teachers’ knowledge and understanding of PL predicted their teaching efficacy in accommodating skill level differences within instruction. These predictive relationships suggest that preservice teachers’ PL influences their efficacy to enact effective teaching behaviors and should remain an ongoing priority of physical education teacher preparation programming suggested by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.