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In-cheol Jeon, Oh-yun Kwon, Jong-hyuck Weon, Ui-jae Hwang and Sung-hoon Jung

Context:

Prone hip extension has been recommended for strengthening the back and hip muscles. Previous studies have investigated prone hip extension conducted with subjects on the floor in the prone position. However, no study has compared 3 different table hip-extension (THE) positions in terms of the activities of the back- and hip-joint muscles with lumbopelvic motion.

Objective:

To identify more effective exercises for strengthening the gluteus maximus (GM) by comparing 3 different exercises (THE alone, THE with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver [THEA], and THEA with chair support under the knee [THEAC]) based on electromyographic muscle activity and pelvic compensation.

Design:

Repeated-measure within-subject intervention.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

16 healthy men.

Main Outcome Measures:

Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to obtain data on the GM, erector spinae (ES), multifidus, biceps femoris (BF), and semitendinosus (ST). Pelvic compensation was monitored using an electromagnetic motion-tracking device. Exertion during each exercise was recorded. Any significant difference in electromyographic muscle activity and pelvic motion among the 3 conditions (THE vs THEA vs THEAC) was assessed using a 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post hoc test.

Results:

The muscle activities recorded by EMG differed significantly among the 3 exercises (P < .01). GM activity was increased significantly during THEAC (P < .01). There was a significant difference in lumbopelvic kinematics in terms of anterior tilting (F = 19.49, P < .01) and rotation (F= 27.38, P < .01) among the 3 exercises.

Conclusions:

The THEAC exercise was the most effective for strengthening the GM without overactivity of the ES, BF, and ST muscles and lumbopelvic compensation compared with THE and THEA.

Restricted access

Ui-jae Hwang, Oh-yun Kwon, In-cheol Jeon, Si-hyun Kim and Jong-hyuck Weon

Context:

The push-up-plus (PP) exercise has been recommended for strengthening of the serratus anterior (SA). Previous studies have investigated the effect of different stability properties of the base of support to adjust the difficulty level of SA muscle-strengthening exercises in the PP position. However, the optimal humeral-elevation angle (HEA) for selective activation and maximum contraction of the SA during PP has not been investigated.

Objectives:

To assess the effects of HEA during PP on electromyographic (EMG) activity in the SA, upper trapezius (UT), and pectoralis major (PM) and on the UT:SA and PM:SA activity ratios.

Design:

Comparative, repeated-measures design.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

29 healthy men.

Main Outcome Measures:

The subjects performed PP at 3 different HEAs (60°, 90°, and 120°); EMG activity in the SA, UT, and PM was measured, and the UT:SA and PM:SA activity ratios were calculated. Differences in muscle activity and ratios between the 60°, 90°, and 120° HEAs were assessed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance; the Bonferroni correction was applied.

Results:

SA muscle activity was significantly increased, in order of magnitude, at the 120°, 90°, and 60° HEAs. UT:SA and PM:SA activity ratios were significantly greater during performance of the PP at an HEA of 60° than at HEAs of 120° and 90°.

Conclusion:

The results suggest that an HEA of 120° should be used during performance of the PP because it produces greater SA activation than HEAs of 60° and 90°.

Open access

Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

Context: Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) was designed for artificial muscle activation or superimposed training. Objectives: To compare the effects of 8 weeks of superimposed technique (ST; application of electrical stimulation during a voluntary muscle action) and EMS on the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis, lateral abdominal wall, and on lumbopelvic control. Setting: University research laboratory. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Fifty healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to either the ST or EMS group. Intervention: The participants engaged with the electrical stimulation techniques (ST or EMS) for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: In all participants, the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis and lateral abdominal wall was measured by magnetic resonance imaging and lumbopelvic control, quantified using the single-leg and double-leg lowering tests. Results: There were no significant differences in the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis (right: P = .70, left: P = .99) or lateral abdominal wall (right: P = .07, left: P = .69) between groups. There was a significant difference between groups in the double-leg lowering test (P = .03), but not in the single-leg lowering test (P = .88). There were significant differences between the preintervention and postintervention in the single-leg (P < .001) and double-leg lowering tests (P < .001). Conclusions: ST could improve lumbopelvic control in the context of athletic training and fitness.