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  • Author: Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel x
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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Manuel A. Ortega-Becerra and Juan J. González-Badillo

Purpose:

To examine the relationship between the relative load in full squats and the height achieved in jump-squat (JS) exercises and to determine the load that maximizes the power output of high-level athletes.

Method:

Fifty-one male high-level track-and-field athletes (age 25.2 ± 4.4 y, weight 77. ± 6.2 kg, height 179.9 ± 5.6 cm) who competed in sprinting and jumping events took part in the study. Full-squat 1-repetition-maximum (1-RM) and JS height (JH) with loads from 17 to 97 kg were measured in 2 sessions separated by 48 h.

Results:

Individual regression analyses showed that JH (R 2 = .992 ± .005) and the jump decrease (JD) that each load produced with respect to the unloaded countermovement jump (CMJ) (R 2 = .992 ± 0.007) are highly correlated with the full-squat %1-RM, which means that training intensities can be prescribed using JH and JD values. The authors also found that the load that maximizes JS’s power output was 0%RM (ie, unloaded CMJ).

Conclusions:

These results highlight the close relationship between JS performance and relative training intensity in terms of %1-RM. The authors also observed that the load that maximizes power output was 0%1-RM. Monitoring jump height during JS training could help coaches and athletes determine and optimize their training loads.

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Ramón Marcote-Pequeño, Amador García-Ramos, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Jorge M. González-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Gómez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of the association between the same variables of the force–velocity (FV) profile and the performance variables (unloaded-squat-jump height and 20-m sprint time) obtained during jumping and sprinting testing and to determine which mechanical capacity (ie, maximum force [F 0], maximum velocity [V 0], or maximum power [P max]) presents the highest association with the performance variables. Methods: The FV profile of 19 elite female soccer players (age 23.4 [3.8] y, height 166.4 [5.6] cm, body mass 59.7 [4.7] kg) was determined during the jumping and sprinting tasks. The F 0, V 0, FV slope, P max, and FV imbalance (difference respect to the optimal FV profile in jumping and the decrease in the ratio of horizontal force production in sprinting) were determined for each task. Results: Very large correlations between both tasks were observed for P max (r = .75) and the performance variables (r = −.73), as well as moderate correlations for V 0 (r = .49), while the F 0 (r = −.14), the FV slope (r = −.09), and the FV imbalance (r = .07) were not significantly correlated between both tasks. The P max obtained during each specific task was the mechanical capacity most correlated with its performance variable (r = .84 in jumping and r = .99 in sprinting). Conclusions: The absence of significant correlations between some of the FV relationship parameters suggests that, for an individualized training prescription based on the FV profile, both jumping and sprinting testing procedures should be performed with elite female soccer players.

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Pierre Samozino, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Filipe Conceição, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan José González-Badillo and Jean-Benoît Morin

Purpose:

To analyze the reliability and validity of a simple computation method to evaluate force (F), velocity (v), and power (P) output during a countermovement jump (CMJ) suitable for use in field conditions and to verify the validity of this computation method to compute the CMJ force–velocity (Fv) profile (including unloaded and loaded jumps) in trained athletes.

Methods:

Sixteen high-level male sprinters and jumpers performed maximal CMJs under 6 different load conditions (0–87 kg). A force plate sampling at 1000 Hz was used to record vertical ground-reaction force and derive vertical-displacement data during CMJ trials. For each condition, mean F, v, and P of the push-off phase were determined from both force-plate data (reference method) and simple computation measures based on body mass, jump height (from flight time), and push-off distance and used to establish the linear Fv relationship for each individual.

Results:

Mean absolute bias values were 0.9% (± 1.6%), 4.7% (± 6.2%), 3.7% (± 4.8%), and 5% (± 6.8%) for F, v, P, and slope of the Fv relationship (SFv), respectively. Both methods showed high correlations for Fv-profile-related variables (r = .985–.991). Finally, all variables computed from the simple method showed high reliability, with ICC >.980 and CV <1.0%.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the simple method presented here is valid and reliable for computing CMJ force, velocity, power, and Fv profiles in athletes and could be used in practice under field conditions when body mass, push-off distance, and jump height are known.

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Amador García-Ramos, Victor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, José A. Morcillo-Losa, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

Purpose: To compare the sprint mechanical force–velocity (F–V) profile between soccer and futsal players. A secondary aim was, within each sport, to study the differences in sprint mechanical F–V profile between sexes and players of different levels. Methods: A total of 102 soccer players (63 men) and 77 futsal players (49 men) who were competing from the elite to amateur levels in the Spanish league participated in this investigation. The testing procedure consisted of 3 unloaded maximal 40-m sprints. The velocity–time data recorded by a radar device were used to calculate the variables of the sprint acceleration F–V profile (maximal theoretical force [F0], maximal theoretical velocity [V0], maximal power [Pmax], decrease in the ratio of horizontal to resultant force [DRF], and maximal ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RFpeak]). Results: Futsal players showed a higher F0 than soccer players (effect size [ES] range: 0.11–0.74), while V0 (ES range: −0.48 to −1.15) and DRF (ES range: −0.75 to −1.45) was higher for soccer players. No significant differences were observed between soccer and futsal players for Pmax (ES range: −0.43 to 0.19) and RFpeak (ES range: −0.49 to 0.30). Men and high-level players presented an overall enhanced F–V profile compared with women and their lower-level counterparts, respectively. Conclusions: The higher F0 and lower V0 of futsal players could be caused by the game’s specific demands (larger number of accelerations but over shorter distances than in soccer). These results show that the sprint mechanical F–V profile is able to distinguish between soccer and futsal players.