This study investigated the effect of three goal-setting conditions (self-set, assigned, and control) and two levels of self-motivation (medium and high) on the performance of females participating in 12 university weight training classes (N = 252). The subjects' levels of self-motivation were assessed via Dishman, Ickes, and Morgan's (1980) Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI). The baseline and performance trials were analyzed in a 3 × 2 × 10 (Goal Condition × Motivation Level × Trial) ANCOVA design, with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline as the covariate. A significant interaction of goal-setting groups and trials was found. Planned comparisons indicated that the assigned goal group was statistically superior to the control and to the self-set groups from Trial 3 through retention. In addition, the two goal-setting groups were statistically superior to the control group at the seventh through retention trials. The subjects' SMI levels were not found to moderate the effect of goal setting on performance.
B. Ann Boyce and Valerie K. Wayda
Kristen D. Dieffenbach and Valerie Wayda
Among the physical activity, exercise and health related academic disciplines, coaching education remains an under-developed field. Once closely aligned with physical education, coaching education has remained practically immobile despite the activity and growth in the related functional fitness and sport performance fields of exercise and sport sciences such as sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, and sport and exercise psychology. This article provides a historical context for the evolution of the academic discipline of coaching education within the broader field of physical education and a brief overview of coaching education as it exists within academia today. Recommendations and suggestions are made for the future growth and development of the coaching education discipline.
Stephen J. Page, Scott B. Martin and Valerie K. Wayda
The purpose was to assess athletes’ attitudes toward seeking sport psychology consultation (SPC) and to examine demographic variables in relation to attitudes toward sport psychology consultants (SPCs). Participants were 53 wheelchair basketball athletes (34 males, 19 females). Data were collected with the Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) of Martin, Wrisberg, Beitel, and Lounsbury (1997). Participants exhibited a range of stigmas toward SPCs, an openness toward consulting with an SPC, and a recognition of need for an SPC. ANOVAs indicated no significant differences between genders, races, ages, educational levels, and SPC experience on ATSSPCQ scores. The results suggest that some wheelchair athletes are amenable to the notion of utilizing an SPC and provide further impetus for SPCs to work with athletes with disabilities.
Valerie K. Wayda, Francine Armenth-Brothers and B. Ann Boyce
B. Ann Boyce, Thomas Johnston, Valerie K. Wayda, Linda K. Bunker and John Eliot
Utilizing a two-stage random sampling technique, this study investigated the effect of three types of goal setting conditions (self-set, instructor-set, and “do your best” control) on tennis serving performance of college students (N = 156) in nine beginning tennis classes. A 3 × 2 × 5 (goal setting conditions × gender × trials) ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate was computed. A significant interaction of goal setting conditions by trials was revealed (p < .003) with follow-up procedures favoring the instructor-set and self-set goal groups over the “do your best" group at the second and fourth trials. Further, at trial two, the instructor-set group was statistically superior to the self-set group. From this significant interaction, it appeared that the instructor-set and self-set goals enhanced students’ performance on the tennis serving task.