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David Giles, Vanesa España Romero, Inmaculada Garrido, Alejandro de la O Puerta, Keeron Stone and Simon Fryer


To examine differences in oxygenation kinetics in the nondominant and dominant flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) of rock climbers.


Participants were 28 sport climbers with a range of on-site abilities (6a+ to 8a French Sport). Using near-infrared spectroscopy, oxygenation kinetics of the FDP was assessed by calculating the time to half recovery (t 1/2 recovery) of the tissue-saturation index (TSI) after 3–5 min of ischemia.


A 2-way mixed-model ANOVA found a nonsignificant interaction (P = .112) for TSI by sex. However, there was a significant main effect (P = .027) of handedness (dominant vs nondominant FDP). The dominant forearm recovered 13.6% faster (t 1/2 recovery mean difference = 1.12 s, 95% CI 0.13–2.10 s) than the nondominant FDP. This was not affected by 6-mo on-site climbing ability or sex (P = .839, P = .683).


Significant intraindividual differences in oxygenation kinetics of the FDP were found. Improvements in oxygenation kinetics in the FDP are likely due to the abilities of the muscle to deliver, perfuse, and consume oxygen. These enhancements may be due to structural adaptations in the microvasculature, such as an increase in capillary density and enhanced improvement in capillary filtration.

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Morin Lang-Tapia, Vanesa España-Romero, Juan Anelo and Manuel J. Castillo

This aim was to examine differences on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in standing position by gender, age and weight status in healthy subjects using a noninvasive method. A total of 297 women (36.6 ± 7.3 years) and 362 men (39.8 ± 7.5 years) participated in this study. Participants were categorized according to the international BMI (kg/m2) cut-off points. Age was stratified by ten years increments starting from 20 y. Men showed smaller lumbar lordosis (17.3 ± 9.3) and larger thoracic kyphosis (42.8 ± 8.8°) than women (29.6 ± 11.3 and 40.4 ± 9.5° respectively; both p < .001). Older groups presented smaller lumbar lordosis and larger thoracic kyphosis values compared with the 20–29 y group (20.9 ± 10.4, 20.8 ± 11.2 and 23.6 ± 12.6° for ≥50, 40–49 and 30–39 y, respectively vs. 26.7 ± 12.2° for 20–29 y in lumbar lordosis and 42.6 ± 9.8, 42.61 ± 8.7 and 41.8 ± 8.9° for ≥50, 40–49 and 30–39 y, respectively vs. 37.5 ± 10.9° for 20–29 y in thoracic kyphosis; both p < .05). Finally, overweight and obese groups showed smaller lumbar lordosis (19.4 ± 11.1 and 20.9 ± 11.8° respectively) and larger thoracic kyphosis values (42.7 ± 8.9 and 42.8 ± 9.4° respectively) compared with nonoverweight participants (25.1 ± 12.4 and 40.6 ± 9.2° for lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis respectively; all p < .05). However, when gender, age and weight status were take into account all together only gender seems to influence the lumbar lordosis curvature. The results of this study suggest that gender could be the only determinant factor of lumbar lordosis in healthy people.

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Vanesa España-Romero, Jonathan A. Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill and Russell R. Pate

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), measured by accelerometry, with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 357 preschool children. Linear mixed models were used adjusting for race/ethnicity, parental education, and preschool. Follow-up analyses were performed using quantile regression. Among boys, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score (b = 0.080, p = .04) but not with waist circumference; quantile regression showed that MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score at the 50th percentile (b = 0.097, p < .05). Among girls, no associations were observed between sedentary behavior and MVPA in relation to mean BMI z-score and mean waist circumference. Quantile regression indicated that, among girls at the 90th waist circumference percentile, a positive association was found with sedentary behavior (b = 0.441, p < .05), and a negative association was observed with MVPA (b = −0.599, p < .05); no associations were found with BMI z-score. In conclusion, MVPA was positively associated with BMI z-score among boys, and MVPA was negatively associated and sedentary behavior was positively associated with waist circumference among girls at the 90th percentile.

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Robin Puett, Jane Teas, Vanesa España-Romero, Enrique Garcia Artero, Duck-chul Lee, Meghan Baruth, Xuemei Sui, Jessica Montresor-López and Steven N. Blair


The importance of physical activity for health is well-established. Questions remain whether outdoor exercise additionally benefits overall mental and physical well-being.


Using cross-sectional data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, we examined relationships of physical activity environment (PAE) with reported tension, stress, emotional outlook, and health.


11,649 participants were included. 18% exercised indoors, 54% outdoors, and 28% in both. Participants who exercised partially or entirely outdoors exercised more. In fully adjusted models, for women combined PAE was protective for worse emotional outlook (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.52–0.98). Combined PAE was also protective for reported poor health (OR for women: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.91; OR for men: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61–0.92). Amount of physical activity modified PAE relationships with outcomes. Combined and outdoor PAE were more consistently protective for worse outcomes among high activity participants. Regardless of PAE, better outcomes were observed in active versus inactive participants.


The current study suggests addition of outdoor PAE may be linked with better stress management, outlook and health perceptions for more active populations, whereas indoor PAE may be more important for low active populations. Further research should examine the order of causation and whether type of outdoor PAE (eg, urban, natural) is important.