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  • Author: Vassilios Gourgoulis x
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Anastasia Bounova, Maria Michalopoulou, Nikolaos Agelousis, Thomas Kourtessis and Vassilios Gourgoulis


Nowadays, the majority of adolescents exceed the AAP guidelines for screen use and this is likely to be a risk factor for obesity. The current study aims at investigating adolescent screen viewing in the context of home and neighborhood environment.


A sample of 1141 adolescents as well as their parents participated in this survey. Adolescents were asked to complete a questionnaire about time spent on screen viewing behaviors. Respectively, parents completed a questionnaire concerning environmental predictors.


Almost two-thirds of the adolescents surveyed spend more than 2 hours per day on screen entertainment, with boys dealing with personal computers (PCs) and electronic games more than girls. The likelihood for an adolescent to exceed 2 hours of screen time is 3.87 times more when he has his meals in front of a TV screen on a daily basis, 1.69 times more when the TV is on, often as not on his return from school and 1.74 times more when there is a PC in the adolescent’s bedroom.


Certain environmental predictors influence adolescents’ screen time, as a result, corrective intervention should aim at the family as a whole, as this whole shapes home environment.

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Dimitrios Aivazidis, Fotini Venetsanou, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Antonis Kambas

Background: This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the “Walk,” an 8-month physical activity (PA) program led by classroom and physical education teachers, on the motor competence (MC) and PA of 5- to 6-year-old children. Methods: A total of 143 children (mean age = 61.51 [1.85] mo) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Children’s MC was assessed by the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (KTK), and PA was objectively measured by Omron HJ-720IT-E2 pedometers. Measurements were performed at baseline, midintervention, and postintervention. A 1-sample t test computed at baseline step counts revealed that children presented significantly lower PA than recommended for their age (P < .001). To examine the effect of the intervention on children’s MC and PA, several repeated-measures analyses of variance were utilized on (1) KTK item scores and (2) pedometer data. Results: The results revealed that the Walk project led to practically significant changes in the experimental group compared with the control group in both MC (P < .001, η 2 > .14 for all KTK items) and PA (P < .001, η 2 = .23). Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of a PA project, involving both classroom and physical education teachers, for the enhancement of children’s MC and PA.

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Fotini Arabatzi, Dimitrios Patikas, Andreas Zafeiridis, Konstantinos Giavroudis, Theodoros Kannas, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Christos M. Kotzamanidis

This study examined the post-activation potentiation (PAP) effects on squat jump (SJ) performance and on peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) in preadolescent (10–12 y), adolescents (14–15 y) and adults (20–25 y) males and females. All participants performed a SJ with and without prior conditioning stimulus (PAP and control protocol, respectively), consisting of 3 × 3-second maximal isometric squats. Jump height and RFDpeak of the vertical ground reaction force during SJ were assessed before, and at 20 seconds and at 4 minutes following the conditioning stimulus. The results revealed a different pattern of age-effect on SJ performance within males and females. The RFDpeak significantly increased as a factor of age in both males and females (P < .05). Increase in SJ performance after conditioning stimulus occurred only in men (P < .05), with no effects in teen-males, boys, and female groups. There was a significant PAP effect on RFDpeak in both adult groups (P < .05) and teen-males, with no effects in children. In conclusion, the PAP effects on SJ performance and RFDpeak are age- and sex-dependent; that is PAP appears as a viable method for acutely enhancing SJ performance in men but not in pediatric population.

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Vassilios Gourgoulis, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Georgios Mavridis, Alexia Boli, Panagiotis Kasimatis, Nikolaos Vezos, Argyris Toubekis, Panagiotis Antoniou and Georgios Mavrommatis

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effect of sprint resisted front crawl swimming on the propulsive forces of the hand. Eight female swimmers swam 25 m with maximal intensity, with and without added resistance. A bowl with a capacity of 2.2, 4 and 6 L was used as low, moderate and high added resistance, respectively. The underwater motion of the swimmer’s right hand was recorded using 4 cameras (60 Hz) and the digitization was undertaken using the Ariel Performance Analysis System. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that the velocity of the hand, the pitch and the sweepback angles of the hand, as well as the magnitude and the relative contribution of the drag and lift forces were not significantly modified and thus the magnitude of the resultant force did not change. Moreover, the magnitude of the effective force, as well as the angle formed between the resultant force and the axis of the swimming propulsion were not significantly affected. Thus, it could be concluded that resistance added as in this study did not alter the pattern of the propulsive hand forces associated with front crawl sprinting.

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Antonis Kambas, Maria Michalopoulou, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Christos Christoforidis, Eirini Manthou, Dimitra Giannakidou, Fotini Venetsanou, Elke Haberer, Athanassios Chatzinikolaou, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Renate Zimmer

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and pedometer-determined physical activity in 5–6 year-old children. Participants (n = 232) were randomly recruited and assessed from 30 kindergartens in Northern Greece. Two trained researchers administered the measurements for the assessment of children’s motor proficiency by using the BOTMP-SF. Physical activity was assessed by OMRON pedometers. Significant relationships between BOTMP-SF standard score and steps (S), aerobic walking time (AWT) and aerobic steps (AS), (p < .05) were found. When motor proficiency was divided into quartiles to assess the distribution of the relationship between motor proficiency and pedometer- derived variables, significant associations were found for AWT, S and AS (p < .001). Young children with high levels of motor proficiency were more active in contrast to their peers with lower motor proficiency. The findings add to the growing body of literature that considers motor skills/abilities as important elements of physical activity participation. (Abbreviations: S-steps per day; AS-aerobic steps per day; AWT-aerobic walking time (minutesfiay−1); BOTMP-SF-Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (standard score))