The purpose of this study was to compare knee extension range of motion (ROM) as measured by a newly constructed linear instrument and by a gravity goniometer among children ages 8–14 years and to establish normative values for these children. The linear instrument recorded the distance in millimeters from the border of an uplifted heel to the measurement table. Coefficients of variation for knee extension were lower when linear measurement was used than with the gravity goniometer. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two methods of knee extension ROM was r = .79 (p < .001). Mean knee extension ROM was 13.2 ± 8.5 mm, or 2.8 ± 1.9°. Results of this study indicated that the constructed instrument was appropriate for assessing knee extension ROM and may be considered for use by rehabilitation specialists.
Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Vassilis Barkoukis, John C.K. Wang, Vello Hein, Maret Pihu, Istvan Soós and Istvan Karsai
The present study tested the cross-cultural generalizability of the measurement and structural parameters of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among youth in a physical activity context. Pupils from five cultural groups completed measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions for physical activity. Five weeks later, participants completed self-report measures of physical activity behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses and multisample structural equation models revealed well-fitting models within each sample with minimal variations in the measurement parameters across cultures. There were a few significant cross-cultural differences in the structural relations among the TPB constructs. Attitudes predicted intentions in all samples (β range = .300 to .550), whereas the effect of the subjective norms on intention was nonsignificant in all but the Hungarian sample (β = .243). Conversely, the effect of PBC on intentions was significant (β range = .302 to .573) in all but the Hungarian sample. Findings support the generalizability of the measures and pattern of effects for the TPB among young people in a physical activity context.