Is a Population-Level Physical Activity Legacy of the London 2012 Olympics Likely?
Adrian E. Bauman, Niamh Murphy, and Victor Matsudo
Physical Activity Promotion: Experiences and Evaluation of the Agita São Paulo Program Using the Ecological Mobile Model
Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Victor Rodrigues Matsudo, Douglas Roque Andrade, Timóteo Leandro Araújo, Erinaldo Andrade, Luis de Oliveira, and Glaucia Braggion
Correlates of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in Brazilian Children
Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Victor Matsudo, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and Mauro Fisberg
Few studies have used ecological models to study multiple levels of association with objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in young children from middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to examine potential correlates of objectively measured MVPA in Brazilian children.
The sample consisted of 328 children. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor MVPA over 7 days. Body mass index and body fat percentage were measured using a bioelectrical impedance scale. Questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and school personnel queried individual, family and home, and school-level environmental correlates.
Children averaged 59.3 min/d in MVPA (44.5% met MVPA guidelines), and 51.8% were overweight/obese. For boys and girls combined, significant correlates (P < .05) of MVPA were waist circumference (β = –.007), travel mode to school (β = .140), maternal employment status (β = –.119) and TV in bedroom (β –.107). In boys, significant correlates of MVPA were waist circumference (β = –.011), travel mode to school (β = .133), and maternal employment status (β = –.195). In girls, the only significant correlate of MVPA was travel mode to school (β = .143).
Several factors were identified as correlates of MVPA in Brazilian children; however, only travel mode to school was common for both boys and girls.
Effect of Physical Inactivity on Major Noncommunicable Diseases and Life Expectancy in Brazil
Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende, Fabiana Maluf Rabacow, Juliana Yukari Kodaira Viscondi, Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo, and I-Min Lee
In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile.
We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature.
In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage.
In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.
Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Independent Associations With Body Composition Variables in Brazilian Children
Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Luis Carlos Oliveira, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Victor Matsudo, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Peter Katzmarzyk
This study aimed to analyze the independent associations of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior, physical activity, and steps/day with body composition variables in Brazilian children. 485 children wore accelerometers for 7 days. Variables included time in sedentary behavior and different physical activity intensities (light, moderate, vigorous, or moderate-to-vigorous) and steps/day. Body fat percentage was measured using a bioelectrical impedance scale, and BMI was calculated. Children spent 55.7% of the awake portion of the day in sedentary behavior, 37.6% in light physical activity, 4.6% in moderate physical activity, and 1.9% in vigorous physical activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day were negatively associated with body composition (BMI and body fat percentage) variables, independent of sex and sedentary behavior. Beta values were higher for vigorous physical activity than moderate physical activity. Vigorous physical activity was negatively associated with BMI (β-.1425) and body fat percentage (β-.3082; p < .0001). In boys, there were significant negative associations between moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day with body composition, and in girls, there was only a negative association with vigorous physical activity, independent of sedentary behavior. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and steps/day (in boys), but especially vigorous physical activity (in boys and girls), are associated with body composition, independent of sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior was not related with any of the body composition variables once adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
Association Between Television Viewing and Physical Activity in 10-Year-Old Brazilian Children
Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Luis Oliveira, Victor Matsudo, Emily Mire, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Peter T. Katzmarzyk
Studies have found an association between television (TV) viewing and physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TV viewing and physical activity in 10-year-old Brazilian children.
The sample consisted of 485 children. Self-reported TV viewing on weekdays and weekends was assessed by questionnaire. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor the range of physical activity intensities (including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB) and steps/day over 7 days.
Daily MVPA was highest among children viewing TV <1 hour/day (69 min) compared with children viewing 1 to 2 hours/day (61 min), 3 to 4 hours/day (55 min) and ≥ 5 hours/day (59 min) on weekdays (P = .0015). Differences in MVPA were not observed across TV categories on weekends. The prevalence of reaching 60 min/day of MVPA and 12,000 steps/day on weekdays was significantly greater in children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day (51.7% and 23.5%, respectively) compared with those viewing > 2 hours/day (38.6%, P = .0058; and 15.1%, P = .0291, respectively). There was no difference in SB across TV viewing categories.
Time spent in MVPA and the frequency of meeting MVPA guidelines were significantly higher among children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day of TV on weekdays compared with those viewing more.
Questionnaire-Based Prevalence of Physical Activity Level on Adults According to Different International Guidelines: Impact on Surveillance and Policies
Edgard Melo Keene von Koenig Soares, Guilherme E. Molina, Daniel Saint Martin, João Luís A. E. Sadat P. Leitão, Keila E. Fontana, Luiz F. Junqueira Jr., Timóteo Leandro de Araújo, Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Victor K. Matsudo, and Luiz Guilherme Grossi Porto
Background: The World Health Organization recommends 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) throughout the week. However, the weekly frequency of PA and how to combine moderate and vigorous PA to define who reaches the recommended PA are controversial. PA level might be highly different based on the recommendation and/or the criteria employed. Methods: Demographic data and PA level evaluated by International Physical Activity Questionnaire from 3 random and representative samples from 1 state, 1 city, and 1 local organization in Brazil were analyzed (n = 2961). Nine criteria from different recommendations were used to define PA level. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals of sufficient PA were calculated for each criterion and compared with the referent (World Health Organization guideline). Total agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were also calculated with 95% confidence interval. Results: When a weekly frequency of PA was required, the prevalence of sufficient PA decreased by 11% (P < .05). For all criteria, doubling the vigorous PA minutes was similar to simply adding them to moderate PA. These findings are consistent regardless of sex, age, and educational level. Conclusion: Prevalence estimates and agreement between different PA recommendations were significantly affected when a minimum frequency was required but did not change when vigorous PA minutes were doubled.
Results From Brazil’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth
Nelson Nardo Jr., Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Edio Luiz Petroski, Ricardo Lucas Pacheco, Priscila Custódio Martins, Luis Carlos Oliveira, Timóteo Leandro Araújo, Anselmo Alexandre Mendes, Samara Pereira Brito Lazarin, Tamires Leal Cordeiro dos Santos, and Victor Matsudo
Very few studies have comprehensively analyzed the physical activity of children and adolescents in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to show the methodology and summarize findings from the first Brazilian Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.
Three Brazilian research institutions coordinated the activities to develop the Brazilian 2016 Report Card. The data available were collected independently and then synthesized by the Research Work Group using the grade system developed for the First Global Matrix released in 2014, which included 9 indicators of physical activity. Where possible, grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%; D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is incomplete data.
Among the 9 indicators, only 5 had sufficient data for grading. Overall Physical Activity received a C- grade, Active Transportation received a C+ grade, Sedentary Behavior received a D+ grade, and Government Strategies and Investments received a D grade.
The low grades observed highlight the need for continued efforts aimed at improving physical activity in Brazilian children.