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Vivian H. Heyward

This paper provides an overview of practical methods for assessing body composition of children, adults, and older adults. Three methods commonly used in field and clinical settings are skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and anthropometry. For each method, standardized testing procedures, sources of measurement error, recommendations for technicians, and selected prediction equations for each age category are presented. The skinfold method is appropriate for estimating body fat of children (6–17 years) and body density of adults (18–60 years) from diverse ethnic groups. Likewise, bioimpedance is well suited tor estimating the fat-free mass of children (10-19 years) as well as American Indian, black, Hispanic, and white adults. Anthropometric prediction equations that use a combination of circumferences and bony diameters are recommended for older adults (up to 79 years of age), as well as obese men and women.

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Wendy M. Sandoval and Vivian H. Heyward

This paper describes the changes in the food selection patterns of male (n=7) and female (n=12) bodybuilders as they prepared for competition. Noncompetition dietary data were obtained 6 to 17 weeks (M = 12.5 wks) prior to competition using a 3-day food record. Precompetition food intake was recorded for the 3 days preceding competition. Foods were classified using the Exchange System and three additional categories which included desserts, alcoholic beverages, and other beverages. The noncompetition diets of the bodybuilders contained servings from each exchange, with the largest number of selections coming from the meat and bread/starch exchanges. Choices from the milk and meat exchanges were almost exclusively low-fat or lean. Primarily complex carbohydrates and high-fiber foods were selected from the bread/starch exchange. The number of different food items reported over 3 days and the total number of food items were greater in the noncompetition diet than in the precompetition diet. Also, variety among food groups and within some of the exchange groups was less in the precompetition diet. Although there was not much variety in the precompetition diets of the bodybuilders, the average nutrient density of their diets exceeded the Index of Nutritional Quality for all nutrients except calcium and zinc.

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Ann L. Gibson, Vivian H. Heyward, and Christine M. Mermier

This study assessed the predictive accuracy of a new hand-held, segmental, bioimpedance (BI) analyzer in estimating the relative body fat (%BF) of a sample of 25 men and 23 women (18–55 years, 7.0 to 42.8%BFHW). The reference method was hydrostatic weighing (HW) at residual lung volume. The %BF estimates obtained from manufacturer’s (Omron) gender-specific equations were cross-validated. There were high validity coefficients (ry,y=.91 and .83, for men and women, respectively), moderate prediction errors (SEE = 3.46%, E = 3.64%BF for men; SEE = 4.04%, E = 3.87%BF for women), and no significant difference (p >.05) between the average %BFHW and %BFOmron for women (21.8% vs. 2I.6%BF, respectively). For men, there was a small but significant (p < .05) difference in %BFHW (18.7%) and %BFOmron (20.1 %). For both men and women, the line of identity did not differ significantly (p > .05) from the line of best fit. The Omron® BI equations accurately estimated the %BF of 72% of the men and 65% of the women in this sample within ±3.5%BF. Therefore, use of the Omron® BI analyzer is suitable for assessing the %BF of adults having demographic characteristics similar to those of this sample.

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L. Kay Morgan, Joy Griffin, and Vivian H. Heyward

In sport psychology, there is a need for ethnic and gender attribution research (Allison, 1988; Duda & Allison, 1989, 1990; Gill, 1993). This study examined effects of (a) ethnicity (African American, Anglo, Hispanic, Native American); (b) gender; and (c) years of track experience on causal attributional dimensions (locus of causality, stability, controllability). The 755 track athletes (ages 13—18) in this study were chosen from 32 randomly selected high schools. Two 3-way MANOVAs were used to analyze data for success and failure. Results indicated that gender and experience had no significant effects on attributional dimensions. Athletes classified causality toward internal, controllable, and unstable ends of the Causal Dimension Scale. Success, however, was perceived to be more internal, controllable, and stable than failure. Significant ethnic differences were identified. Anglos perceived success as more internal and controllable than did either African Americans or Native Americans. Anglos perceived failure as more controllable than African Americans did. Anglos perceived failure as more internal and controllable, but less stable than Native Americans did.

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Ann L. Gibson, Vivian H. Heyward, Christine M. Mermier, Jeffrey M. Janot, and M. Virginia Wilmerding

The authors used 3-component (3C) Db-mineral-model (Lohman, 1986) reference measures to cross-validate Siri’s (1961) 2-component (2C) conversion formula and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of relative body fat (%BF) for physically active adults. Participants varied in age (18 to 59 y), body fatness, ethnicity (black, Hispanic, white), and physical activity level. The 3C Db-mineral model was used to obtain reference measures of %BF (%BF3C) for comparison with body-composition measures from DXA and hydrodensitometry. For men (n = 110) and women (n = 110), %BF3C (14.0% BF and 24.4% BF, respectively) was more accurately estimated by Siri’s 2C formula (%BFSiri; men, r = 0.97, SEE = 1.77% BF; women, r = 0.98, SEE = 1.56% BF) than by DXA (%BFDXA; men, r = 0.86, SEE = 3.54% BF; women, r = 0.88, SEE = 3.73% BF). The average %BFSiri (men, 15.8% BF; women, 24.7% BF) and %BFDXA (men, 16.2% BF; women, 26.0% BF) differed significantly (P < 0.001) from %BF3C. Siri’s 2C model estimated the average %BF3C in this sample more accurately than DXA did.

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Donna W. Lockner, Vivian H. Heyward, Sharon E. Griffin, Martim B. Marques, Lisa M. Stolarczyk, and Dale R. Wagner

The Segal fatness-specific bioelectrical impedance (BIA) equations are useful for predicting fat-free mass (FFM). Stolarczyk et al, proposed a modified method of averaging the two equations for individuals who are neither lean nor obese, thus eliminating the need to know % BF a priori. To cross-validate this modification, we compared FFM determined using the averaging method versus hydrostatic weighing for 76 adults. Per the averaging method, accuracy for males was excellent (r = .91, SEE = 2.7kg, E = 2.7kg), with 78% of individuals within ± 3.5% BF predicted by hydrostatic weighing. Accuracy for females was lower (r = .88, SEE = 3.0kg, E = 3.1 kg), with %BF of 51% within ±3.5% of the reference method. The relative ease and practicality of the averaging method and the results of this study indicate this method may be useful with a diverse group.

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Vivian H. Heyward, Kelly L. Cook, Virginia L. Hicks, Kathy A. Jenkins, Joseph A. Quatrochi, and Wendy L. Wilson

Three methods of body composition assessment were used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) in nonobese (n=77) and obese (n=71) women, 20-72 yrs of age, Skinfolds (SKF), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) methods were compared to criterion-derived %BF from hydrostatic weighing (%BFHW). Nonobese subjects had < 30% BFHW and obese subjects had >30% BFHW. The Jackson, Pollock, and Ward SKF equation and the manufacturer's equations for BIA (Valhalla) and NIR (Futrex-5000) were used. For nonobese women there were no significant differences between mean %BFHW and %BFSKF, %BFB1A, and %BFNIR. The rs and SEEs were 0.65 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.61 and 3.6% BF for BIA, and 0.58 and 3.7% BF for NIR for nonobese subjects. For obese women, mean %BPHW was significantly underestimated by the SKF, BIA, and NIR methods. The rs and SEEs for the obese group were 0.59 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.56 and 3.5% BF for BIA, and 0.36 and 3.9% BF for NIR. The total errors of the equations ranged from 5.6 to 8.0% BF in the obese group. It is concluded that all three field methods accurately estimate %BF for nonobese women; however, none of the methods is suitable for estimating %BF for obese women.