Many people have suggested that management theorists have become overly theoretical and frequently neglect to provide practitioners with the meaningful implications of their research findings. Acclaimed management scientist Henry Mintzberg expressed the same concerns for the leadership field of study. The North American Society for Sport Management could learn from the history and experiences of the management science/leadership fields and provide both academics and practitioners with research that both advances the field and impacts the profession.
W. James Weese
Sport management scholars and practitioners alike hold tremendous interest in the area of leadership. Recent developments in the area, particularly regarding transformational leadership, offer great promise to both groups. This article contains a discussion with internationally famous leadership scholar Dr. Bernard Bass about the current thinking and future direction for leadership theory development. A summary of that discussion is presented along with implications for sport management scholars and practitioners.
W. James Weese
This descriptive research study was conducted to investigate the concepts of transformational leadership and organizational culture within the administrative levels of campus recreation programs of Big Ten and Mid-American Conference universities. While transformational leadership was quantitatively measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (LBQ), the Culture Strength Assessment (CSA) and Culture Building Activities (CBA) instruments provided two quantitative measures of organizational culture. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed to enrich and cross validate the findings. The researcher concluded that high transformational leaders direct programs that (a) possess stronger organizational cultures and (b) carry out culture-building activities, specifically the “customer orientation” function, to a greater extent than other leaders do. An interaction effect between leadership and conference was uncovered for this variable. No significant difference was uncovered between the high and low leadership groups relative to the penetration of culture throughout the top four hierarchical levels of the organization.
W. James Weese
Organizational effectiveness continues to be a popular topic in management settings, seminars, and research projects. Similar levels of interest prevail in the area of sport management, although most of the attention is expressed in the elite sport areas. This paper provides an overview of the organizational effectiveness literature with specific application to the area of recreationalintramural sport programs in institutions of higher learning.
The Target Population Satisfaction Index (TPSI) instrument is introduced as an instrument to measure organizational effectiveness in these programs. The author outlines the steps taken to develop and test the instrument as well as a suggested protocol for administering the instrument. The TPSI instrument was subjected to a number of psychometric assessments and is presented as a valid and reliable measurement tool.
W. James Weese
The areas of leadership and organizational culture continue to capture the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Some suggest that these two areas might hold the key to understanding and predicting organizational effectiveness. Others remain skeptical, offering that effectiveness is determined by a variety of factors, many of which fall beyond the scope of the leader's influence or the culture of the organization. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the relationships that exist between transformational leadership (measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, organizational culture (measured by the Culture Strength Assessment), and organizational effectiveness (measured by the Target Population Satisfaction Index) in the campus recreation programs of both the Big Ten and Mid-American Conferences (N = 19). The directors of these programs were given considerable levels of job autonomy to lead their respective programs as well as the opportunity to alter and/or imbed a desired culture during their administration. Significant differences were uncovered in both conferences for executive transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, no significant relationship was uncovered between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. A significant relationship was discovered between organizational culture strength and organizational effectiveness.
Mike Wallace and W. James Weese
This study was undertaken to investigate the links between transformational leadership, organizational culture, and employee job satisfaction within the 69 Canadian YMCA organizations. Leadership was measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1988), organizational culture by the Organizational Culture Assessment Questionnaire (Sashkin, 1990), and employee job satisfaction by the Job in General Index (Balzer & Smith, 1990). The results of a MÁNOVA and subsequent ANOVA statistical treatments allowed the researchers to conclude that significant differences in organizational culture existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. In addition, the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders administered organizations that carried out the culture-building activities of managing change, achieving goals, coordinated teamwork, and customer orientation to a greater degree than YMCA organizations led by low transformational leaders. No significant differences in employee job satisfaction levels existed between the YMCA organizations led by high transformational leaders and those led by low transformational leaders.
W. James Weese and Shawn Beard
The best universities pride themselves on developing the next generation of leaders as do the top sport management programs. Many sport management programs offer a leadership course, some at the graduate level. However, two questions emerge when discussing the teaching of leadership, namely, what do students need to know about area, and how can the topic be most effectively taught? A recent 12-month educational leave provided a cherished opportunity for the lead author to delve into the latest advancements in leadership and leadership development. The coauthor on this paper took a leadership course in his graduate sport management program and offered the perspective of an end-user. The authors provide an overview of the leadership development literature, profile three unique leadership courses offered in other disciplines, and provide sport management professors with information they should consider in developing and delivering their courses in leadership, especially at the graduate level.