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  • Author: W. Steven Tucker x
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W. Steven Tucker and Stephen W. Slone

Context:

Clinicians use various stretching techniques to prevent the onset of and treat glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD). It is unknown which stretching technique is the most effective.

Objective:

To investigate the acute effects of hold–relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) with and without vibration therapy on internal rotation in individuals with GIRD.

Design:

2-within (stretch × time) comparison with repeated measures.

Setting:

Controlled laboratory.

Participants:

11 male current and former overhead athletes (19.8 ± 1.4 y, 184.5 ± 4.5 cm, 91.8 ± 11.6 kg) who presented with GIRD.

Interventions:

At 3 separate sessions, participants performed 1 of 3 randomly assigned stretches: hold–relax PNF (PNF), hold–relax PNF in combination with a whole-body-vibration unit set at 30 Hz (PNF-V), and static stretch (SS). Pretest and posttest maximum passive glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements were taken with a digital protractor.

Main Outcome Measures:

The dependent variables were the mean glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements taken at the pretest and posttest. The influence of stretch (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) and time (pretest and posttest) on mean glenohumeral internal rotation was compared using a 3 × 2 factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on both variables (P ≤ .05).

Results:

There was a stretch-by-time interaction (F 2,20 = 34.697, P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that the PNF posttest (73.0° ± 10.4°) was greater than the PNF pretest (60.0° ± 11.8°), the PNF-V posttest (74.7° ± 10.0°) was greater than the PNF-V pretest (57.4° ± 10.4°), and the SS posttest (67.0° ± 10.7°) was greater than the SS pretest (60.1° ± 9.4°). When comparing the posttest values, the PNF-V posttest was greater than the SS posttest.

Conclusions:

All 3 stretches (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) resulted in acute increases in glenohumeral internal rotation in individuals presenting with GIRD. The PNF-V stretch resulted in the greatest increase and would be the most clinically beneficial for patients with GIRD.

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W. Steven Tucker, Charles W. Armstrong, Erik E. Swartz, Brian M. Campbell and James M. Rankin

Context:

Closed kinetic chain exercises are reported to provide a more functional rehabilitation outcome.

Objective:

To determine the amount of muscle activity in 4 shoulder muscles during exercise on the Cuff Link.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Subjects:

10 men and 10 women, age 18–50.

Intervention:

Subjects performed 3 sets of 5 revolutions on the Cuff Link in non-weight-bearing, partial-weight-bearing, and full-weight-bearing positions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Electromyography data were collected from the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major and were expressed as percentage of maximal isometric contractions.

Results:

Significant differences were found across the weight-bearing conditions for all 4 muscles. Exercise on the Cuff Link required minimal to significant amounts of muscle recruitment.

Conclusions:

Muscle recruitment increases as weight bearing increases during use of the Cuff Link, suggesting an increase in dynamic stabilization of the glenohumeral joint.

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John Henderson, Brian C. Lyons, W. Steven Tucker and Ben Davidson

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cloth wrap (CW) and ankle tape (TAP) techniques on vertical jump performance in 29 Division I football players. There was a significant reduction in vertical jump performance for both the TAP (76.2 ± 1.3 cm; t28= 6.5, p < .0005) and CW (77.3 ± 1.3 cm; t28= 3.9, p = .001) conditions as compared with the control (78.4 ± 1.3 cm). The TAP group also had reduced vertical jump scores as compared with the CW group (t28= 4.9, p < .0005). Both prophylactic techniques resulted in decreased vertical jump capability with the TAP having a greater negative impact than the CW.