David A. Dzewaltowski, Thelma S. Horn, Wang Min Qi, Hermann Rieder and David Yukelson
R. Todd Bartee, Burke Grandjean, Michael S. Dunn, James M. Eddy and Min Qi Wang
This study sought to predict the use of dietary supplements marketed to enhance athletic performance among 1,737 adolescent athletes. An anonymous, paper-and-pencil, self-report survey was administered to the participants. Grade level, participation in multiple sports, and scales representing attitudes, subjective norms, and intention were all significant predictors of current dietary supplement use. The results of this study allow for the development of more appropriate prevention and intervention strategies that can target specific groups of adolescent athletes. We recommend that attitudes of adolescent athletes be addressed in interventions and that salient others be included in program planning.
Edward McAuley, Joan Duda, Atsushi Fujita, Lise Gauvin, Wayne Halliwell, Yuri L. Hanin, Brad D. Hatfield, Thelma Horn, Wang Min Qi, Kevin Spink, Maureen Weiss and David Yukelson
This study was designed to examine perceptions of causality and perceptions of success in women's intercollegiate gymnastics and to determine the relative influence of perception of success on causal explanations for performance and the reciprocal influence, if any, of causal attributions on perceptions of success. Intercollegiate gymnasts were asked to indicate how successful they felt their performance had been on each of four Olympic gymnastic events. The gymnasts also completed the Causal Dimension Scale (Russell, 1982) following performance of each event. The score awarded by the judges for each event was employed as an objective, absolute measure of performance. Multivariate analyses of variance that revealed more internal, stable, and controllable attributions for performance were made by those gymnasts who scored high and perceived their performance as more successful than those gymnasts who scored lower and perceived their performance as less successful. The results of this study are discussed in terms of new approaches to attribution research in sport.