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  • Author: Warren A. Whisenant x
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Paul M. Pedersen, Warren A. Whisenant and Ray G. Schneider

The purpose of this study was to determine if the coverage given to female and male interscholastic athletics was a function of the gender of the individuals who make up newspaper sports departments. The degree to which males controlled and dominated the newspaper coverage of interscholastic sports was also assessed. The study revealed, from the examination of 1792 articles and 827 photographs, that the newspaper media was clearly the domain of males who made up 91.4% of the reporters, 78.6% of the photographers, 100% of the executive sports editors, and 91.3% of the high school sports editors. The study further determined that there was no association between the gender of the newspaper personnel and the amount of coverage given to female and male interscholastic athletics. Female and male reporters, photographers, and editors were found equally responsible for the under-represented coverage of girls' interscholastic athletics.

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Warren A. Whisenant, Paul M. Pedersen and Michael K. Smucker

Job satisfaction is an essential construct explaining human behavior in organizations. To fully understand the construct, however, it is necessary to recognize how employees establish satisfaction levels. One method has been to explore who employees use as a basis of comparison—referent others—when establishing their perceptions of equity, which influence satisfaction. This study expanded the body of knowledge associated with satisfaction and sport organizations by using nontraditional participants—members of the Association for Women in Sports Media. The referent-selection processes used by these women in determining their level of satisfaction in five specific areas of job satisfaction were compared. The Job Descriptive Index was used to establish satisfaction levels, and a Referent Selection Instrument identified whom the participants used as a basis of comparison. The findings indicate the extent to which the participants made referent comparisons, what comparisons were made, and the relationship between satisfaction and their referent comparisons.

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Paul M. Pedersen and Warren A. Whisenant

The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of gender-biased or stereotypical coverage in the written and photographic newspaper reporting of interscholastic sports. Over a one-year timeframe, a total of 602 newspaper issues were randomly selected from Florida’s 43 daily newspapers. These daily issues contained 1792 articles and 827 photographs that fit the criteria for inclusion. The results of the study were consistent with previous research on the media’s stereotypical coverage of athletics. Both female and male athletics were over-represented in both written and photographic coverage of traditionally accepted “sex appropriate” sports. Male athletics were under-represented in both written and photographic coverage of “sex inappropriate” sports. Female athletics, when analyzing their participation in “sex inappropriate” sports, were under-represented in the photographic coverage but not in the written coverage. Overall, there existed hegemonic masculinity within the sports pages of the Florida print media.

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Paul M. Pedersen, Warren A. Whisenant and Annie Clement