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Wayne Brown and Matt Greig

The epidemiology and etiology of ankle sprain injuries in soccer have been well described. Retrospective analysis of epidemiological data identified an English Premier League player sustaining a high lateral ankle sprain. GPS data collated during the training session in which the injury was sustained, and subsequent rehabilitation sessions, were analyzed to quantify uniaxial PlayerLoad metrics. The injured player revealed a 3:1 asymmetrical loading pattern in the mediolateral plane and multiaxial high loading events which might present the inciting event to injury. The high magnitude, asymmetrical and multiplanar loading is consistent with lateral ankle sprain etiology.

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Dianna P. Gray, Frank Ashley, Marlene Brown and Wayne Brown

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David W. Brown, David R. Brown, Gregory W. Heath, David G. Moriarty, Lina Balluz and Wayne H. Giles


Hypertension (HTN), which affects more than 65 million Americans, is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce blood pressure and is associated with higher levels of HRQOL.


Using self-reports from 60,321 hypertensive adults age 18 y or older who participated in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, we examined the independent relationship between engaging in recommended levels of moderate or vigorous PA and four measures of HRQOL developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


For all age and racial/ethnic groups and both sexes, the proportion of hypertensive adults with 14 or more unhealthy days (physical or mental) in the past month was significantly lower among those who attained recommended levels of PA than among physically inactive adults.


Participation in regular PA is one of several lifestyle strategies available to control and prevent HTN. These results suggest that PA is associated with higher levels of HRQOL among adults with HTN and highlight the importance of health programs that promote participation in regular PA.

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Zachary F. Lerner, Derek J. Haight, Matthew S. DeMers, Wayne J. Board and Raymond C. Browning

Net muscle moments (NMMs) have been used as proxy measures of joint loading, but musculoskeletal models can estimate contact forces within joints. The purpose of this study was to use a musculoskeletal model to estimate tibiofemoral forces and to examine the relationship between NMMs and tibiofemoral forces across walking speeds. We collected kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data as ten adult participants walked on a dual-belt force-measuring treadmill at 0.75, 1.25, and 1.50 m/s. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to each participant and used OpenSim to calculate the NMMs and muscle forces through inverse dynamics and weighted static optimization, respectively. We determined tibiofemoral forces from the vector sum of intersegmental and muscle forces crossing the knee. Estimated tibiofemoral forces increased with walking speed. Peak earlystance compressive tibiofemoral forces increased 52% as walking speed increased from 0.75 to 1.50 m/s, whereas peak knee extension NMMs increased by 168%. During late stance, peak compressive tibiofemoral forces increased by 18% as speed increased. Although compressive loads at the knee did not increase in direct proportion to NMMs, faster walking resulted in greater compressive forces during weight acceptance and increased compressive and anterior/posterior tibiofemoral loading rates in addition to a greater abduction NMM.