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Semyon Slobounov, William Kraemer, Wayne Sebastianelli, Robert Simon and Shannon Poole

The primary purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how modem motion tracking technologies, i.e., the Hock of Birds, and computer visualization graphics may be used in a clinical setting. The idea that joint injury reduces proprioception was investigated, and data for injured subjects were compared to data for noninjured subjects (subjects in all experiments were college students). Two experiments showed that there were no significant losses in joint position sense in knee-injured subjects, and both injured and noninjured groups visually overestimated knee movements. However, injured subjects showed no significant differences when visual reproduction data were compared with actual movement data. In addition, these data indicated that injured subjects may have greater potential for apprehension than noninjured subjects, at least in terms of visual estimation of movement ranges. This is an idea that needs further testing.

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Semyon M. Slobounov, Robert Simon, Wayne Sebastianelli, Angela Carlson and William E. Buckley

A variety of assessment devices have been developed for scientific investigation on human movement that can also be used to assess the progress of a rehabilitation program. The present investigation was undertaken to show how this technology can be combined with the most aggressive type of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Advanced technology was used to assess the physical rehabilitation parameters of active range of motion (AROM) and sport-specific functional progression for an Olympic-caliber diver who had bilateral wrist problems. AROM was measured for both wrists using a Flock of Birds motion-tracking device, and functional progression was assessed with an Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc. force platform for measuring the center of pressure (CP) area. The results of the treatment were clinically favorable, with an increase in AROM and a decrease in the CP area for functional motor control. The technology provided useful information about the progress of a rehabilitation program.

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Todd A. Evans, Sharon N. Domorski, Wayne J. Sebastianelli, Margot Putukian and Jay N. Hertel

Idiopathic forefoot pain, often termed metatarsalgia, is a common complaint among running athletes. Whereas several causes are often included in the differential diagnosis, Freiberg’s infraction is rarely considered. The signs and symptoms present with Freiberg’s infraction however, can mimic those present with more common forefoot injuries. The article presents the case of a female Division-I college soccer player who developed and was successfully treated for bilateral Freiberg’s infraction. Her initial complaint of unilateral forefoot pain, induced only by vigorous running, progressed to intolerable bilateral forefoot pain with light exercise. Conservative treatment was unsuccessful, and therefore surgery was required to enable her continued athletic participation. As with all weight-bearing joints, clinicians need to be aware of the potential for progressive degenerative changes at the metatarsal heads and the steps used in the evaluation and subsequent treatment of Freiberg’s infraction

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Thomas P. Dompier, Craig R. Denegar, W.E. Buckley, S. John Miller, Jay Hertel and Wayne J. Sebastianelli

Context:

Flexibility is promoted as essential to physical fitness, but the mechanisms limiting it are not fully understood.

Objective:

To investigate the effects of general anesthesia on hamstring extensibility.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Hospital operating room.

Subjects:

Eight volunteers undergoing orthopedic surgeries unrelated to the tested limb.

Measurement:

Three measurements of passive knee extension (PKE) taken before and after administration of general anesthesia. The force applied during the measurements was consistent between trials.

Results:

Mean PKE range of motion (ROM) was significantly greater before anesthesia (75.0° ± 11.8°) than after (53.3° ± 17°; t = 5.6, P < .001). Pearson product correlation revealed a significant correlation between the mean difference in PKE ROM between treatment conditions and subjects’ body weight (r = .91, P < .05).

Conclusions:

The findings might be attributable to diminished neural drive to the antagonist muscle groups and suggest a more complex neural control of flexibility than simply neural drive to an agonist muscle.

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Semyon M. Slobounov, Shannon T. Poole, Robert F. Simon, Elena S. Slobounov, Jill A. Bush, Wayne Sebastianelli and William Kraemer

Assessment and enhancement of joint position sense is an inexact science at best. Anew method of evaluating and improving this sense using motion-tracking technology that incorporates computer visualization graphics was examined. Injured and healthy subjects were evaluated for their abilities to determine shoulder joint position, after abduction, in two tasks. The first was active reproduction of a passively placed angle. The second was visual reproduction of such an angle. A training protocol was added to determine the effectiveness of proprioceptive training in conjunction with 3-D visualization techniques. The primary findings were (a) a significant difference (p = .05) in the level of joint position sense in injured vs. healthy subjects; (b) significantly less accurate reproduction of larger shoulder abduction vs. the smaller movement in the active reproduction task; (c) significantly greater ability to accurately reproduce angles actively vs. visually; and (d) that proprioception training using 3-D visualization techniques significantly increased active and visual reproductions of passively placed angles.

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William J. Kraemer, Jill A. Bush, Robbin B. Wickham, Craig R. Denegar, Ana L. Gomez, Lincoln A. Gotshalk, Noel D. Duncan, Jeff S. Volek, Robert U. Newton, Margot Putukian and Wayne J. Sebastianelli

Context:

Prior investigations using ice, massage, or exercise have not shown efficacy in relieving delayed-onset muscle soreness.

Objectives:

To determine whether a compression sleeve worn immediately after maximal eccentric exercise enhances recovery.

Design:

Randomized, controlled clinical study.

Setting:

University sports medicine laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen healthy, non-strength-trained men, matched for physical criteria, randomly placed in a control group or a continuous compression-sleeve group (CS).

Methods and Measures:

Subjects performed 2 sets of 50 arm curls. 1RM elbow flexion at 60°/s, upper-arm circumference, resting-elbow angle, serum creatine kinase (CK), and perception-of-soreness data were collected before exercise and for 3 days.

Results:

CK was significantly (P < .05) elevated from the baseline value in both groups, although the elevation in the CS group was less. CS prevented loss of elbow extension, decreased subjects’ perception of soreness, reduced swelling, and promoted recovery of force production.

Conclusions:

Compression is important in soft-tissue-injury management.