This study was designed to examine the relationship between conceptions of ability and understandings of the meaning of effort. Participants practiced a novel task and completed an ability conceptions questionnaire prior to instruction and a meaning of effort survey after practicing the task. The majority of participants believed in the efficacy of effort, no matter what view of ability they endorsed. Partial support was provided for the proposition that participants with stronger incremental views of ability were likely to endorse the view that trying hard allowed them to fully use their ability. It is suggested that, to promote active engagement and enhance skill learning, teachers capitalize on the belief in the efficacy of effort by focusing their motivational strategies on students’ effort.
Yilin Li and Weidong Li
Purpose: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on caring in physical education and physical activity settings with a goal of identifying the status, gaps, and future trends of research on ethic of care in our field. Methods and Data Analysis: The authors identified and coded 16 peer-reviewed and data-based articles with a coding template from six databases. For each of the coding categories, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: Physical education teachers valued the importance of being caring. The perceived caring climate or perception of caring behaviors was positively related to a number of motivational, cognitive, and emotional variables in physical education or physical activity settings. Discussion and Conclusion: Research on caring in our field is still in its infancy. Noddings argues that caring is the end in and of itself. This philosophical belief of caring as an end in and of itself needs further examination. The review of literature showed that the majority of studies had solely focused on caring as a means to an end. This is misaligned with the work of Noddings. More experimental research with a rigorous design and appropriate statistical modeling for data analysis are needed. Future research shall also examine other students’ behaviors and learning outcome variables. The teaching pedagogies and practices identified in these qualitative studies can help guide physical education teachers to enact a caring-based curriculum.
Ben Dyson and Weidong Li
Ben Dyson and Weidong Li
Ben Dyson and Weidong Li
Weidong Li, Xiuye Xie, and Huanyu Li
Guided by Situated Learning theory, the purpose of this article is to propose an extension to existing game-centered curricular models, named Situated Game Teaching through Set Plays (SGTSP). This proposed model fills in the gaps in the literature on game-centered curricular models by theorizing the concept of game scenarios/match conditions in the coaching literature for physical education, utilizing Situated Learning theory as a theoretical framework to systematically develop a curricular model, and conceptualizing and operationalizing the stimulus-response selection and execution or if–then links decision-making process in teaching sports and games in physical education. This SGTSP model has a potential to advance the curricular development and provide an alternative approach to teach tactical decision making in sports and games in physical education. Future research shall examine the effectiveness of SGTSP curricular model on students’ motivation, tactical decision making, technique development, and game performance. Features of this model and implications for future research will be discussed.
Weidong Li, Paul Rukavina, and Paul Wright
The purpose of this study was to examine coping against weight-related teasing among adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese in urban physical education. Forty-seven students perceived to be overweight or obese from a large urban school district were interviewed. Trustworthiness of data analysis was established by using a member-checking procedure, focus group interview, and peer debriefing throughout the research process. The results indicated that adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese used self-protection, compensation, confrontation, seeking social support, avoidance/psychological disengagement, losing weight and stress reduction strategies to cope against weight-related teasing. Adolescents used multiple strategies under different mechanisms to cope, and the strategies they chose were dependent on the situation.
Haichun Sun, Weidong Li, and Bo Shen
The purpose of this study was to review the literature relevant to learning in physical education (PE) according to the self-determination theory (SDT). In this literature review, we first provide an overview of SDT. Second, we discuss students’ SDT-related motivational profiles in PE. Third, we illustrate the relationships among students’ perceptions of the nature of an autonomy-supportive or controlling learning environment, need satisfaction, and self-determined motivation. Fourth, we explore the impact of SDT on students’ learning in PE with respect to the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning domains. Finally, we articulate the pedagogical implications on the basis of the reviewed SDT research and future directions for SDT research in PE.
Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee, and Weidong Li
The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.