The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.
Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee and Weidong Li
Wang Jiahong, Ping Xiang, Zhang Dazhi, Weidong Liu and Xiaofeng Gao
Physical education (PE) undergraduate programs in higher education in China have evolved over the last 100 years. As a result, a comprehensive system of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education has been established in today’s colleges/universities in China. The large number of students who have completed a physical education undergraduate major have greatly contributed to the development of physical education and sports in China. In this article, we reviewed the evolution of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China according to five historical eras: (a) the early period of New China, (b) the Cultural Revolution period, (c) the early period of reform and opening up, (d) the period of socialist market economy exploration, and (e) the 21st century era. We also systematically examine the structures, goals, and courses of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China. Finally, we provide in-depth analysis of the development of the physical education undergraduate majors through the examination of their guiding principles, goals, and curriculum design, which might serve as a reference for further enhancing the reform of the curricular design of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education during the current era.