This study investigated the current levels of teachers’ knowledge about and views of the National Standards for Physical Education (NASPE, 1995) and factors that influenced the teachers’ understandings of and interpretations of the standards. Twenty-five elementary and secondary physical education teachers voluntarily participated in this study. Data were collected primarily through 25 formal interviews and observing 78 lessons taught by the teachers. Data were analyzed using constant comparison techniques. Findings indicated that: a) personal commitment is a key factor contributing to teachers’ growing knowledge about the standards, b) active participation in professional development activities helps teachers stay current, and c) understanding of the standards is an influential determinant of the teachers’ attitude toward the standards.
Weiyun Chen and Theresa Cone
The purpose of this study was to describe how children’s use of critical thinking skills in their movement actions was inspired and elicited by an “expert” teacher’s task design, task presentation, and instructional strategies during children’s creative dance lessons. The data sources included videotaping 16 creative dance lessons and written anecdotal descriptions. The findings indicated that by presenting sequential open-ended tasks and learning cues and providing instructional scaffolding, the teachers helped the students generate divergent and original movement responses and refinement of dance quality and expression, which are critical thinking elements.
Weiyun Chen and Andrew J. Hypnar
Motivations for and positive attitudes toward physical activity (PA) developed during childhood are likely to be carried over to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between three psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education (PE), and attitudes toward participation in leisure-time PA among upper elementary school students. One thousand and seventy-three students in grades 3-5 anonymously and voluntarily completed three measures, including Psychological Needs Satisfaction, Motivational Regulations, and Attitudes, which were modified from previous works and judged by a panel of experts to ensure the wording of each item was understandable for upper elementary school students. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, composite reliability coefficient, and multilevel confirmatory factor analysis methods. The results indicated that the composite reliability coefficients of the measures were above .60, ranging from .62 to .79. The results of structural equation model indicated that satisfactions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were significantly instrumental to the enhancement of autonomous motivation in PE settings and attitudes toward PA participation. Elementary school students’ having fun, obtaining benefits, and being with friends were all major motivational factors contributing to positive attitudes toward PA outside of school.
Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich
The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.
Weiyun Chen, Kristin Hendricks and Weimo Zhu
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player’s offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a basketball unit in one physical education teaching methods course. Two investigators independently coded each player’s offensive game behaviors with BOGPI. The interrater reliability of the BOGPI was 99% and the alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale of the BOGPI was .95. The content validity evidence of the BOGPI was established by six experienced experts’ judgment. The results of this study indicate that the BOGPI is a theoretically sound and psychometrically supported measure that can be used by researchers and teacher educators to assess the preservice teachers’ offensive game performance ability in basketball.
Weiyun Chen, Inez Rovegno, John Todorovich and Matt Babiarz
The purpose of this study was to describe third grade children’s movement responses to dribbling tasks taught by four accomplished teachers and how children’s dribbling varied with changes in task constraints. Children in four intact classes were videotaped during three dribbling lessons as part of their physical education program. Videotapes were analyzed to provide descriptions of children’s movement responses. Typically, when children dribbled while walking or jogging they controlled the ball, pushed with finger pads, and looked at the ball. When dribbling tasks were more difficult, in general, there was less ball control and more slapping with palms (less mature patterns) while at the same time more instances of children lifting their heads to look up (a more mature pattern). Task constraints had differential impacts on different dribbling elements. One implication is that teachers need to consider this differential impact in designing practice conditions and in selecting assessment tasks.
Weiyun Chen, Theresa Purcell Cone and Stephen L. Cone
This study describes how a physical education teacher collaborated with a second-grade teacher to plan and implement an interdisciplinary unit, and it identifies factors that contributed to the teachers’ actual collaboration. One accomplished elementary physical education teacher, one experienced second-grade classroom teacher, and 35 students from two second-grade classes voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected by audiotaping the two planning sessions, videotaping eight integrated lessons taught by the physical education teacher and three integrated lessons taught by the classroom teacher, transcribing the taped lessons, and interviewing the teachers. The findings indicated that the teachers’ collaborative planning focused on providing students with integrated and relevant learning experiences. Throughout the collaboration, the two teachers shared leadership roles and teaching responsibilities. The teachers attributed their effective interdisciplinary teaching to their long-term collaborative working experiences, common teaching philosophy, and mutual respect and trust.