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Wilbert M. Leonard II

This study replicated Christiano’s inquiry on race and salaries in major league baseball in 1987. However, instead of merely dichotomizing the independent variable into black and white, the data were trichotomized into white, black, and Hispanic categories. Unstandardized regression coefficients (after disaggregating the observations by race / ethnicity, position, and free agency status) revealed several instances of salary inequities but no systematic patterning. The conclusion: The salaries of baseball players varying in race / ethnicity were not consistently different even while holding other theoretically relevant variables constant.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II

The relationship between race and position for college basketball players was investigated using a sample of 644 student-athletes at 47 NCAA affiliates. Seven different operationalizations of position, the dependent variable, produced bivariate associations that were negligible and not statistically significant. The introduction of five control variables (NCAA division, playing and scholarship status, sex, and year in school) failed to alter the bivariate outcomes. The present data indicate that stacking in college basketball has declined, particularly at the center position, but continues to exist at forward and guard slots.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II

This study refined and extended Christiano’s recent inquiry on race and salaries in major league baseball. Instead of merely dichotomizing the independent variable into black and white, the data were trichotomized into white, black, and Hispanic categories; pitchers, because they were not studied, provided the focal point. A model of salary for pitchers was both specified and tested. Unstandardized regression coefficients (after disaggregating the units of analysis by race/ethnicity) revealed several instances of salary inequities but small ns precluded systematic testing. Hence, the verdict is still out as to whether or not the salaries of baseball pitchers varying in race/ethnicity are consistently different while holding other theoretically relevant variables constant.

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Marc Lavoie and Wilbert M. Leonard II

The stacking of blacks in noncentral positions is a time-consistent feature of professional baseball. It is shown that differential batting and slugging averages between positions are also a structural feature. The structure of stacking as well as its evolution are well explained by the uncertainty thesis, that is, the belief that discrimination and differential barriers to entry are linked to the difficulty and lack of objectivity in assessing player performance at a given position. However, because the uncertainty thesis fails to predict the expected performance differentials between black and white players, auxiliary hypotheses have to be entertained. It is concluded that a combination of the uncertainty thesis and the well-known centrality hypothesis may best explain what occurs in baseball.

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Marc Lavoie and Wilbert M. Leonard II

The distinction between starting and relief pitchers is crucial for a correct assessment of pay determination. Nevertheless, making this distinction does not alter the trend of empirical findings, namely that there is no salary discrimination against blacks in baseball.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II and John Phillips

“Stacking” is one of the oldest and most thoroughly studied phenomena in the sociology of sport. Because of this tradition, the literature is replete with tabular demonstrations of the stacking phenomenon. Many of these data arrangements violate an important convention in table presentation: Percents should be computed in the direction of the causal factor. This procedure allows one to contrast the distribution of the dependent variable between/among categories of the independent variable and enables determining what differences, if any, exist between/among categories of the independent variable. The consequences of this violation for stacking studies is that, technically, position appears to affect race whereas, logically, race affects position played. Because so many competent researchers have published tables that run the “wrong way,” it is appropriate to examine the rationale behind the cause and effect rule for percentaging tables and instances in which this “rule” may be broken.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II and Jonathan E. Reyman

The present study contributes to and extends the literature on sport and social mobility by refining the computations for the odds of attaining professional athlete status in the U.S. Using 1980 U.S. census data, 1986 and 1987 team rosters, and 1986 lists of money winners, rates for achieving “entry level” professional sport careers were computed for males and females, whites, blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islanders in the sports of football, baseball, basketball, hockey, men’s and women’s golf, men’s and women’s tennis, and auto racing. The methodological contribution of this research is that refined norming variables are employed in the statistical calculations; that is, they are age, race/ethnicity, sport, and sex specific. This inquiry contains the most systematic, extensive, and precise measures for assessing the likelihood of achieving the ultimate in sport upward social mobility—professional athlete status.

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Wilbert M. Leonard II, Tony Ostrosky and Steve Huchendorf

Grusky’s seminal investigation of the theoretical linkage between formal structure and organizational leadership, now a quarter of a century old, was replicated and extended. All major league baseball managers between 1876 and 1984 (N=504) as well as a random sample of players (n=504) comprised the units of analyses. The empirical results support Grusky’s theory of formal structure and managerial recruitment. Managers were found to be recruited more heavily from the high interactive positions of catcher and infield than from the low interactive positions of pitcher, outfield and designated hitter. This confirmation holds whether the operationalization of formal structure was the primary position, multiple positions, or the number of games played at each position.

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Dean A. Purdy, Wilbert M. Leonard II and D. Stanley Eitzen

This paper extends previous research examining salary differentials by race/ethnicity in major league baseball. Our analysis adds to previous research by using career statistics for both hitters and pitchers, and, for the pitcher category, both starters and relievers. We also examined race/ethnicity two ways: (a) according to the standard three categories of white, black, and Hispanic and (b) according to five categories—white, black U.S. born, black foreign born, Hispanic U.S. born, and Hispanic foreign born. Using analysis of variance and regression analysis we found that race/ethnicity did not play a statistically significant role in salary determination, no matter how race/ethnicity was coded.