Australian Football is an intense team sport played over ~120 min on a weekly basis. To determine the effects of game and training load on muscle soreness and the time frame of soreness dissipation, 64 elite Australian Football players (age 23.8 ± 1.8 y, height 183.9 ± 3.8 cm, weight 83.2 ± 5.0 kg; mean ± SD) recorded perceptions of muscle soreness, game intensity, and training intensity on scales of 1–10 on most mornings for up to 3 competition seasons. Playing and training times were also recorded in minutes. Data were analyzed with a mixed linear model, and magnitudes of effects on soreness were evaluated by standardization. All effects had acceptably low uncertainty. Game and training-session loads were 790 ± 182 and 229 ± 98 intensity-minutes (mean ± SD), respectively. General muscle soreness was 4.6 ± 1.1 units on d 1 postgame and fell to 1.9 ± 1.0 by d 6. There was a small increase in general muscle soreness (0.22 ± 0.07–0.50 ± 0.13 units) in the 3 d after high-load games relative to low-load games. Other soreness responses showed similar timelines and magnitudes of change. Training sessions made only small contributions to soreness over the 3 d after each session. Practitioners should be aware of these responses when planning weekly training and recovery programs, as it appears that game-related soreness dissipates after 3 d regardless of game load and increased training loads in the following week produce only small increases in soreness.
Paul G. Montgomery and Will G. Hopkins
David K. Liow and Will G. Hopkins
The training practices of athletes with disabilities were investigated by means of a validated self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were derived from the replies of 41 wheelchair racers, 20 swimmers, and 14 athletes specializing in throwing events. The majority of athletes competed at either international (77%) or national levels (15%). Almost all swimmers were coached frequently, but one third of the wheelchair racers and one half of the throwers were not coached. Median volumes of endurance, interval, strength, and skill training in each of four training phases (buildup, precompetition, taper, and postcompetition) only partially reflected the contribution of energy systems and skills to performance in the different sports; moreover, there were wide variations in the training programs of athletes within each sport, especially swimmers and throwers. It was concluded that there is need for improvement in the coaching and training of many top-class athletes with disabilities.
David S. Rowlands and Will G. Hopkins
The effect of pre-exercise meal composition on metabolism and performance in cycling were investigated in a crossover study. Twelve competitive cyclists ingested high-fat, high-carbohydrate, or high-protein meals 90 min before a weekly exercise test. The test consisted of a 1-hour pre-load at 55% peak power, five 10-min incremental loads from 55 to 82% peak power (to measure the peak fat-oxidation rate), and a 50-km time trial that included three 1-km and 4-km sprints. A carbohydrate supplement was ingested throughout the exercise. Relative to the high-protein and high-fat meals, the high-carbohydrate meal halved the peak fat-oxidation rate and reduced the fat oxidation across all workloads by a factor of 0.20 to 0.58 (p = .002–.0001). Reduced fat availability may have accounted for this reduction, as indicated by lower plasma fatty acid, lower glycerol, and higher pre-exercise insulin concentrations relative to the other meals (p = .04–.0001). In contrast, fat oxidation following the high-protein meal was similar to that following the high-fat meal. This similarity was linked to evidence suggesting greater lipolysis and plasma fat availability following high-protein relative to high-carbohydrate meals. Despite these substantial effects on metabolism, meal composition had no clear effect on sprint or 50-km performance.
Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins
Purpose: To further the understanding of elite athlete performance in complex race environments by examining the changes in cyclists’ performance between solo time trials and head-to-head racing in match-sprint tournaments. Methods: Analyses were derived from official results of cyclists in 61 elite international sprint tournaments (2000–2016), incorporating the results of 2060 male and 1969 female head-to-head match races. Linear mixed modeling of log-transformed qualification and finish ranks was used to determine estimates of performance predictability as intraclass correlation coefficients. Correlations between qualifying performance and final tournament rank were also calculated. Chances of winning head-to-head races were estimated adjusting for the difference in the cyclists’ qualifying times. All effects were evaluated using magnitude-based inference. Results: Minor differences in predictability between qualification time trial and final tournament rank were suggestive of more competitiveness among men in the overall tournament. Performance in the qualification time trial was strongly correlated with, but not fully indicative of, performance in the overall tournament. Correspondingly, being the faster qualifier had a large positive effect on the chances of winning a head-to-head race, but small substantial differences between riders remained after adjustment for time-trial differentials. Conclusions: The present study provides further insight into how real-world competition data can be used to investigate elite athlete performance in sports where athletes must directly interact with their opponents. For elite match-sprint cyclists, qualifying time-trial performance largely determines success in the overall tournament, but there is evidence of a consistent match-race ability that modifies the chances of winning head-to-head races.
Darrell L. Bonetti and Will G. Hopkins
To estimate variability in performance time and smallest worthwhile changes for elite fat-water canoeists competing in 200-, 500- or 1000-m events at international regattas.
The data came from A and B finals held at 7 to 13 regattas in 2003 to 2007. A linear mixed-model analysis of log-transformed official race times provided estimates of variability as coefficients of variation and included terms to account for changes in performance between years, venues, and A and B finals.
For men, the within-athlete variation in A finals was similar in canoeing and kayaking events, with the 200-m men’s events demonstrating probably less variability than the longer events (by an overall factor of 0.75, ×/÷1.33) that may reflect differences in pacing strategies. In contrast, the within-athlete variation for women kayakers in A finals of the 500-m event was only half that of the other distances (ratio 0.54, ×/÷1.29), possibly because of differences in competitive experience or depth of competition. Predictability of performance in A finals was moderate to very high (interclass correlations 0.40 to 0.89). Within-athlete variation in the B finals was generally greater than in the A finals for the three distances for men, but there was no clear pattern for women.
The smallest worthwhile changes in performance time (0.3× within-athlete variability) in canoeing and kayaking are approx. 0.3% to 0.6%. Effects of 1% to 2% in power output would be required to achieve such changes in this generally highly predictable sport.
Will G. Hopkins and Alan M. Batterham
Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins
To explore the extent to which factors that determine performance transfer within and between time-trial and mass-start events in the track-cycling Omnium.
Official finish rank in the 3 time-trial events, in the 3 mass-start events, and in the competition overall were collated in 20 international Omnium competitions between 2010 and 2014 for 196 male and 140 female cyclists. Linear mixed modeling of the log-transformed finish time for the time-trial events and of log-transformed finish rank for all events and final rank provided estimates of within-athlete race-to-race changes in performance and average betweenathletes differences across a season. These estimates were converted to various correlations representing relationships within and between the various events and final rank.
Intraclass correlation coefficients, representing race-to-race reproducibility of performance, were similar whether derived from finish rank or finish time for the time-trial events. Log-transformed finish ranks are therefore a suitable measure to assess and compare performance in time-trial and mass-start events. Omnium cyclists were more predictable in their performances from race to race in the timed events, whereas reduced predictability was observed in mass-start events. Interevent correlations indicated stronger links in performance between the timed disciplines, whereas performance in any of the mass-start events had only a slight positive relationship with performance in the other massstart events and little or no relationship with the timed events.
Further investigation is warranted to determine whether factors related to performance in mass-start events can be identified to improve reproducibility or whether variability in performance results from random chance.
Patrycja Lipinska, Sian V. Allen and Will G. Hopkins
Pacing has a substantial effect on endurance performance. The authors characterize pacing and identify its parameters for optimal performance in 1500-m freestyle swimming.
Web sites provided 50-m lap and 1500-m race times for 330 swims of 24 elite male swimmers. Pacing for each swim was characterized with 7 parameters derived from a general linear model: linear and quadratic coefficients for the effect of lap number; reductions from predicted time for first, second, penultimate, and last laps; and lap-time variability. Scatter plots of race time vs each parameter for each swimmer were used to identify optimum values of parameters.
Most scatterplots showed only weak relationships between the parameter and performance, but one-third to one-half of swimmers had an optimum value of the parameter that was substantially different from their mean value. A large improvement in performance time (1.4% ± 0.9%, mean ± SD) could be achieved generally by reversing the sign of the linear parameter to make the slowest lap occur earlier in the race. Small to moderate improvements might also accrue by changing the quadratic parameter, by making the first and second laps slower and the penultimate and last laps faster, and reducing lap-time variability.
This approach to analysis of pacing may help improve performance in swimmers and other endurance athletes in sports with multiple laps, but data from many competitions are required.
Cesar Marius Meylan, John Cronin, Will G. Hopkins and Jonathan Oliver
Adjustment for body mass and maturation of strength, power, and velocity measures of young athletes is important for talent development. Seventy-four youth male athletes performed a ballistic leg press test at five loads relative to body mass. The data were analyzed in maturity groups based on years from peak height velocity: −2.5 to −0.9 y (n = 29); −1.0 to 0.4 y (n = 28); and 0.5 to 2.0 y (n = 16). Allometric scaling factors representing percent difference in performance per percent difference in body mass were derived by linear regression of log-transformed variables, which also permitted adjustment of performance for body mass. Standardized differences between groups were assessed via magnitude-based inference. Strength and power measures showed a greater dependency on body mass than velocity-related variables (scaling factors of 0.56–0.85 vs. 0.42–0.14%/%), but even after adjustment for body mass most differences in strength and power were substantial (7–44%). In conclusion, increases in strength and power with maturation are due only partly to increases in body mass. Such increases, along with appropriate adjustment for body mass, need to be taken into account when comparing performance of maturing athletes.
Rita M. Malcata, Tom J. Vandenbogaerde and Will G. Hopkins
There is a need for fair measures of country sport performance that include athletes who do not win medals.
To develop a measure of country performance based on athlete ranks in the sport of swimming.
Annual top-150 ranks in Olympic pool-swimming events were downloaded for 1990 through 2011. For each athlete of a given rank, a score representing the athlete’s performance potential was estimated as the proportion of athletes of that rank who ever achieved top rank. A country’s scores were calculated by summing its athletes’ scores over all 32 events. Reliability and convergent validity were assessed via year-to-year correlations and correlations with medal counts at major competitions. The method was also applied to ranks at the 2012 Olympics to evaluate countries’ swimming performance.
The performance score of an athlete of a given rank was closely approximated by 1/rank. This simpler score has 1 practical interpretation: An athlete ranked 7th (for example) has a chance of 1/7 of ever achieving top rank; for purposes of evaluating country performance, 7 such athletes are equivalent to 1 athlete of the top rank. Country scores obtained by summing 1/rank of the country’s athletes had high reliability and validity. This approach produced scores for 168 countries at the Olympics, whereas only 17 countries won medals.
The authors used the sport of swimming to develop a fair and inclusive measure representing a country’s performance potential. This measure should be suitable for assessing countries in any sports with world rankings or with athletes at major competitions.