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William G. Anderson

This article reports on a group of eight recent studies that focus on physical education curriculums and programs. The investigations were completed in connection with the doctoral research program at Teachers College, Columbia University. The intent of this review is to provoke interest in curriculum and program research by using selected studies to illustrate a variety of approaches that might be pursued in the areas of curriculum development, collaborative program development, program description, describing the development process, and program evaluation. Essential features of the research strategies employed in each study are presented and related issues are discussed. A limited taxonomy for these types of curriculum and program studies is proposed to facilitate the conceptualization of future studies.

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Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Steve F. Fraser, Nigel K. Stepto, Rudi Klein, William G. Hopkins and John A. Hawley

Eight competitive oarswomen (age, 22 ± 3 years; mass, 64.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed three simulated 2,000-m time trials on a rowing ergometer. The trials, which were preceded by a 24-hour dietary and training control and 72 hours of caffeine abstinence, were condueted 1 hour after ingesting caffeine (6 or 9 mg kg ’ body mass) or placebo. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations before exercise were higher with caffeine than placebo (0.67 ± 0.34 vs. 0.72 ± 0.36 vs. 0.30±0.10 mM for 6 and 9 mg · kg−1; caffeine and placebo, respectively; p <.05). Performance lime improved 0.7% (95% confidence interval [Cf] 0 to 1.5%) with 6 mg kg−1 caffeine and 1.3$ (95% CI 0.5 to 2.0%) with 9 mg · kg−1 caffeine. The first 500 m of the 2,000 m was faster with the higher caffeine dose compared with placebo or the lower dose (1.53 ± 0.52 vs. 1.55 ± 0.62 and 1.56 ± 0.43 min; p = .02). We concluded that caffeine produces a worthwhile enhancement of performance in a controlled laboratory setting, primarily by improving the first 500 m of a 2,000-m row.