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William A. Burgess, J. Mark Davis, William P. Bartoli and Jeffrey A. Woods

The effects of ingesting a low dose of CHO on plasma glucose, glucoregulatory hormone responses, and performance during prolonged cycling were investigated. Nine male subjects cycled for 165 min at ≈67% peak VO2 followed by a two-stage performance ride to exhaustion on two occasions in the laboratory. Every 20 min during exercise, subjects consumed either a flavored water placebo (P) or a dilute carbohydrate beverage (C). Blood samples were collected immediately before, every 20 min throughout, and immediately after exercise. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, lactate, free fatty acids (FFA), and various glucoregulatory hormones. VO2, RER, heart rate, perceived exertion, and exercise performance were also measured. Lactate, FFA, epinephrine, norepinephrine, ACTH, cortisol, and glucagon increased with exercise whereas glucose and insulin decreased (p≤05). Except for a small difference in glucose at 158 min of exercise and at exhaustion, no significant differences were found between drinks for any of the variabfes studied (p ≥ 05). Ingestion of 13 g carbohydrate per hour is not sufficient to maintain plasma glucose, attenuate the glucoregulatory hormone response, and improve performance during prolonged moderate intensity cycling.

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Jennifer G. Walker, Kelly R. Evenson, William J. Davis, Philip Bors and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects.

Methods:

Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies.

Results:

Preparation: Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions: The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs: Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy: Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects: Consistent standards for wayfinding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety.

Conclusions:

Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives.