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Susan Vincent Graser, Robert P. Pangrazi and William J. Vincent


The purpose was to determine if waist placement of the pedometer effected accuracy in normal, overweight, and obese children, when attaching the pedometer to the waistband or a belt.


Seventy-seven children (ages 10-12 y) wore five pedometers on the waistband of their pants and a belt at the following placements: navel (NV), anterior midline of the right thigh (AMT), right side (RS), posterior midline of the right thigh (PMT), and middle of the back (MB). Participants walked 100 steps on a treadmill at 80 m · min−1.


The RS, PMT, and MB sites on the waistband and the AMT and RS sites on the belt produced the least error.


Of these sites the RS placement is recommended because of the ease of reading the pedometer during activity. Using a belt did not significantly improve accuracy except for normal weight groups at the NV placement site.

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Mary A. Painter, Kathleen B. Inman and William J. Vincent

The effects of contextual interference on motor skill acquisition and retention were examined in 24 subjects (mean age 13.9 years) with mild mental retardation and 24 chronologically age-matched subjects (mean age 13.11 years) with no disabilities. Subjects from each group were assigned randomly to either a blocked or a random practice schedule. All subjects performed 15 practice trials for each of three different beanbag throwing tasks, 45 trials total. Following a 10-min filled retention interval, 2 trials of each throw (6 total) were performed in a random order by all subjects. Accuracy scores were measured as absolute error from the target. The data revealed a significant interaction between ability groups and practice schedule. Post hoc analyses revealed that the retention scores of the mildly mentally handicapped subjects practicing under blocked conditions were significantly less accurate than scores of any of the other three acquisition groups. Significant effects in variable error retention scores indicated that subjects in the random practice condition performed more consistently than subjects in the blocked condition.

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Richard L. Urbanski, Steven F. Loy, William J. Vincent and Ben B. Yaspelkis III

Ten physically active, untrained, college-aged males (26.4 ± 5.8 years old) received creatine (CR. 5 g creatine monohydrate + 3 g dextrose) and placebo (PLA, 7 g dextrose) supplementation four times per day for 5 days in a double-blind, randomized, balanced, crossover design. Performance was assessed during maximal and three repeated submaximal bouts of isometric knee extension and handgrip exercise. CR supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) maximal isometric strength during knee extension but not during handgrip exercise. CR supplementation increased time to fatigue during each of the three bouts of submaximal knee extension and handgrip exercise when compared to the PLA trials. These findings suggest that CR supplementation can increase maximal strength and lime to fatigue during isometric exercise. However, the improvements in maximal isometric strength following CR supplementation appear to be restricted to movements performed with a large muscle mass.