Routledge Handbook of Adapted Physical Education
Willie Leung and Jeffrey A. McCubbin
Comparison of Participation in Strength Activity Between Wearable Device Users and Nonusers: 2017 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System
Willie Leung, Lu Shi, and Jaehun Jung
Background: There are many benefits associated with engaging in strength physical activity. Many studies did not examine the engagement of strength activity among wearable device users. This study aimed to examine the association between wearable device usage and engagement of strength activity in free-living settings using nationally representative data. Methods: A total of 8250 adult wearable device users and nonusers from 8 states of the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System were included in analysis. Multiple regression models were performed to determine the association between the dependent variables of strength activities and the independent variable of wearable devices. Results: Wearable device users were 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.81) times the odds of nonusers in engaging in strength activity. Users also had higher odds of meeting both the strength and aerobic physical activity guidelines than nonusers (odds ratio = 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–2.06; adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–2.00). No associations were found between wearable device utilization and frequency of strength activity per week. Conclusion: Wearable device users were more likely to engage in strength activity than nonusers. However, additional studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of wearable devices in promoting strength activity.
Meta-Analysis of Physical Activity Levels in Youth With and Without Disabilities
Jaehun Jung, Willie Leung, Bridgette Marie Schram, and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to explore the current levels of physical activity among youth with disabilities using meta-analysis. The search identified 11 publications including 729 participants (age 4–20 yr). The overall effect size for 11 studies was Hedges g = 0.60 (SE = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.24, 0.96], p < .05, k = 11) using a random-effects model. The findings suggest that differences in physical activity levels between youth with and without disabilities are complex. Results indicated that youth without disabilities engaged in higher levels of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity (g = 0.66, SE = 0.18, p < .05). However, no differences were found in light-intensity physical activity (g = −0.03, SE = 0.16, p > .85). Results also suggested that the differences in physical activity between youth with and without disabilities were affected by age (<12 yr, g = 0.83, SE = 0.24, 95% CI [0.37, 1.29], p < .05, and >13 yr, g = 0.37, SE = 0.10, 95% CI [0.18, 0.57], p < .05; Q value = 3.20, df = 1, p < .05), with children with disabilities engaging in less physical activity than children without disabilities in younger ages. Differences in physical activity level between youth with and without disabilities are functions of intensity of physical activity and age but may not be of type of disability (Q value = 0.22, df = 1, p > .6).