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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski, and Teresa Zwierko

The authors investigated the dynamics of saccadic parameters during a stationary oculomotor target task in amputee soccer players (n = 16), able-bodied soccer players (n = 16), and nonathletic control subjects (n = 16). Eye movements during the visual-search tasks were recorded binocularly using a mobile eye-tracking system, and the gaze parameters were analyzed (fixation duration, saccade duration, saccade amplitude, saccade average acceleration, saccade peak deceleration, saccade average velocity, and ocular mobility index). The average saccade acceleration in the amputee soccer players was significantly lower than in the able-bodied players (p = .021). Other saccade characteristics in disabled athletes were comparable to those of the able-bodied groups. Moreover, the able-bodied soccer players presented faster saccadic parameters than nonathletes in terms of saccade acceleration (p = .002), deceleration (p = .015), and velocity (p = .009). The modification of oculomotor functions may result from extensive practice and participation in ball games. The authors’ hypothesis that oculomotor functions in amputee soccer players may be impaired was not fully confirmed.

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Teresa Zwierko, Wojciech Jedziniak, Beata Florkiewicz, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Piotr Lesiakowski, Marta Śliwiak, Marta Kirkiewicz, and Wojciech Lubiński

The aim of the study was to explore the functional impairments and related factors in older adults with moderate to advanced stages of glaucoma. Nineteen patients with glaucoma and 19 participants with no ocular disease performed step test and balance control tasks with analysis of overall stability index and fall risk index. Monocular and binocular Humphrey Visual Field tests were used to estimate visual field defect severity. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity level. Patients with glaucoma showed poorer values for most of the mobility and balance control parameters with medium and large effect sizes (0.3–0.5). Mobility scores in patients were partly associated with their monocular visual field defect (rs = .507, p < .05). Low physical activity was identified as a risk factor for falls (rs = −.453, p < .05) and postural instability (rs = −.457, p < .05). Functional declines in dynamic tasks were not related to glaucoma severity. Older adults with glaucoma display impairment with mobility and balance control compared to controls, associated with the degree of monocular visual field loss and lower daily physical activity.