Xavier Ramon, Andrew C. Billings, and José Luis Rojas-Torrijos
Adrià López-Ferrer, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Gonzalo Monfort-Torres, Jesús Ramón-Llin, Joao Alves de Moraes Filho,, and Xavier García-Massó
Objective: To determine which type of feedback (visual, verbal, or both combined) facilitates to a greater extent the learning of a specific skill (passing in volleyball). Methods: Three groups of students between 14 and 15 years of age belonging to the third year of Compulsory Secondary Education in a Spanish public high school (n = 58) were randomly assigned a type of feedback implemented in the part of the syllabus dedicated to volleyball. The students’ knowledge, motor performance, accuracy, and self-perception about the action were evaluated before and after the intervention and enjoyment afterwards. Results: All the groups obtained improvements in all the variables studied (p < .05); the verbal and visual feedback group was the one that obtained greater improvements, showing also a greater enjoyment than the visual feedback group. Conclusions: It has been found that the use of the combination of verbal and visual feedback is most recommended for learning a specific skill, such as passing in volleyball.
Maria José Tormo, Carmen Navarro, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Xavier Barber, Silvia Argilaga, Antonio Agudo, Pilar Amiano, Aurelio Barricarte, Jose M. Beguiristain, Miren Dorronsoro, Carlos Alberto González, Carmen Martínez, José Ramón Quirós, and Mauricio Rodríguez
This study evaluated the dietary pattern of foods and nutrients according to levels of vigorous leisure time physical activity (PA) assessed at recruitment within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC) study (37,287 healthy volunteers with complete information). We used a validated PA questionnaire (PAQ) to measure the weekly frequency and duration of different kinds of sport activities. For dietary assessment, we used a validated diet history questionnaire that included all items consumed with a frequency of at least twice a month. We tested differences in food and nutrient intake according to PA duration by means of both an analysis of variance and an analysis of covariance adjusted for confounding factors. Linear increases or decreases in food and nutrient intake across PA levels were tested by means of a regression analysis. Only 11% of men and 6% of women performed at least 3 hours/week of intense PA, which is similar to current recommendations. Overall, main nutrient and total energy intakes were similar across different PA levels (<2% change in total energy intake between extreme PA categories). However, the intake of some foods and vitamins did significantly (p ≤ .05) increase as PA increased. The average gender-weighted percentage change in the intake of food and vitamins increased when moving from the lowest levels of PA to the highest. There was an increase in the intake of the following: 15.9% in vegetables, 6.7% in fruit, 9% in fish, 5.6% in dairy products, 10% in vitamin C, 5.9% in vitamin E, 7.2% in retinol, 19.7% in total carotene, 40.1% in α-carotene, 20.4% in ß-carotene, 11.2% in licopene, and 26.1% in lutein. BMI, which was above average for the cohort (mean ± SD: 28.4 ± 4.2), decreased steadily when PA increased. To sum up, in this large Spanish cohort, the differences in dietary intake relative to levels of PA were not found either in the amount of total energy consumed nor in the number of main macronutrients but rather in the intake of certain foods which, while having very little or moderate caloric content, are very rich in highly bioactive elements such as vitamins and provitamins.