The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students’ 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students’ scores were fully invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals positively predicted intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. It also revealed that performance-approach goal was a stronger predictor of external regulation among female students than among male students. Collectively, these results provide evidence that researchers can make valid inferences about differences in achievement goal and self-regulation scores across male and female students. This study also supports the view that mastery-approach goals are motivationally beneficial, especially among female students, in college physical activity class settings.
Xiaoxia Su, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride and Xiaoxia Su
Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.
Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.
Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.
The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.
Xiaoxia Su, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, Jiling Liu and Michael A. Thornton
This study examined at-risk boys’ social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura’s self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort. Results indicated that social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy were clearly distinguishable. However, the two constructs had a strong positive correlation. Both social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy predicted prosocial behaviors significantly, with social self-efficacy having a stronger predictive power. Physical activity self-efficacy was a better predictor of effort than social self-efficacy. This study provides initial empirical evidence supporting Bandura’s conceptualization of the domain-specific features and predictive power of self-efficacy in a summer sports camp setting, and thus enables a better understanding of the nature and effects of self-efficacy.