Purpose: Teacher knowledge of rules, techniques, and tactics is called common content knowledge. Such knowledge is essential for effective teaching of physical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer common content knowledge. Method: Rasch modeling was used to evaluate the validity and reliability of a test of soccer to a sample of 530 Chinese teacher education students. Results: Twenty-seven of 30 questions demonstrated good item-model fit. Moderately high internal consistency for personability and high internal consistency for item difficulty are reported. There were gaps between personability estimates and item-difficulty levels at the lower and higher ends of the map, indicating a lack of more easy and difficult questions. Conclusion: The analysis provides evidence to support the validity and reliability of this instrument as a test of soccer common content knowledge for Chinese preservice physical education teachers.
Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang
Phillip Ward, Yaohui He, Xiaozan Wang and Weidong Li
Purpose: Accurately measuring the content knowledge of teachers is critical to designing professional development to support their teaching. We examined the depth of specialized content knowledge (SCK), defined in terms of instructional tasks reported by teachers and factors that could affect their SCK. Method: Content maps were used to evaluate the SCK of 384 Chinese secondary physical education teachers. Teacher demographic variables such as age, gender, educational background, teaching, coaching, and playing histories, and engagement with professional development were also collected. SCK scores were analyzed descriptively. An ANOVA was conducted to investigate demographic variables that could influence SCK scores. Results: Descriptive data showed a majority of teachers (78.2%) had low SCK scores. The ANOVA analysis showed that teachers’ ranking position, and years of teaching experience, significantly predicted the SCK score. The remainder of the variables failed to significantly predict the SCK score. A post hoc analysis showed that 1st grade rank teachers scored marginally better than those with a 3rd grade rank. Teachers’ years of teaching experience negatively predicted their scores on the content map. Teachers who had more years of teaching experience scored lower on their SCK. Conclusion: A majority of teachers in this study had low SCK. These two statistically significant relationships found were weak but not meaningful. Our findings suggest that SCK, as a special kind of content knowledge, may not be easily obtained from experience.
Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su
Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.