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Makoto Yoshida, Yasuaki Saho and Masaki Katayose


Studies have reported the difference in humeral retroversion (HR) between the dominant and nondominant side in throwing athletes. However, there are few data concerning HR for the rest of the population. In addition, the relationship between HR and external (ER) and internal rotation (IR) at 90° shoulder abduction has not been thoroughly investigated.


To investigate the reliability of ultrasound methodology to measure HR. In addition, using ultrasonography, the authors compare HR between the dominant and nondominant sides in healthy adult men and determine the relationship between HR and ER and IR at 90° of shoulder abduction.


Descriptive study.




Thirty-seven healthy male subjects (age 21.9 ± 2.4 y, height 172.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 66.0 ± 7.2 kg) with no history of shoulder or elbow injury, recruited from a convenience sample, volunteered for the study.

Main Outcome Measures:

Subjects were bilaterally examined for HR, ER, and IR. HR was measured by ultrasonography.


The intrarater reliability of the ultrasound methodology was .91−.98, and the interrater reliability was .97. The HR angle on the dominant side (mean ± SD: 68.5° ± 10.0°) was significantly greater than that of the nondominant side (58.0° ± 8.4°; P < .001). ER on the dominant side was significantly greater than on the nondominant side (P < .001), whereas IR on the dominant side was significantly smaller than on the nondominant side (P < .001). Total arc of motion for the dominant side was not significantly different from that of the nondominant side (P = .335).


In the current study, ultrasound methodology to measure HR showed high interrater reliability, as well as high intrarater reliability. In addition, this study indicates that healthy Japanese adult men have side-to-side differences in HR.

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

Context: Deficits in knee position sense following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can delay an athlete’s return to sport participation and increase the risk of reinjury. Deficits in position sense postreconstruction have been evaluated using either a position-reproducing or position-matching task. Objective: The aim of our study was to combine both to determine which assessment would be more effective to identify deficits in knee position sense. Design: Longitudinal laboratory-based study. Participants: Eleven athletes (6 men and 5 women; mean age, 20.5 [1.2] y), who had undergone ACL reconstruction with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft, and 12 age-matched controls. Interventions: Position sense was evaluated at 6 and 12 months postreconstruction and once for the control group. In addition, peak isokinetic knee extension and flexion strength, at 60°/s and 180°/s, was assessed for the ACL reconstruction group to evaluate possible influences of muscle strength on knee joint position sense. Main Outcome Measures: The variables include the angular differences between the reference limb and indicator limb, and peak torque values of isokinetic knee extension and flexion. Results: Significant matching differences were identified at 6 months postsurgery on the position-matching task, but not at 12 months postsurgery. No significant between-group and within-subject differences were identified on the position-reproducing task. No significant matching errors were identified for the control group. There was no correlation between errors in position sense and maximum isokinetic strength. Conclusion: The position-matching task is more sensitive than the position-reproducing task to identify deficits in knee position sense over the first year following ACL reconstruction surgery.