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Hiroshi R. Yamasaki, Hiroyuki Kambara, and Yasuharu Koike

The purpose of this study was to clarify criteria that can predict trajectories during the sit-to-stand movement. In particular, the minimum jerk and minimum torque-change models were examined. Three patterns of sit-to-stand movement from a chair, i.e., upright, natural, and leaning forward, were measured in five young participants using a 3-D motion analysis device (200 Hz). The trajectory of the center of mass and its smoothness were examined, and the optimal trajectories predicted by both models were evaluated. Trajectories of the center of mass predicted by the minimum torque-change model, rather than the minimum jerk model, resembled the measured movements in all rising movement patterns. The upright pattern required greater extension torque of the knee and ankle joints at the instant of seat-off. The leaning-forward pattern required greater extension hip torque and higher movement cost than the natural and upright patterns. These results indicate that the natural sit-to-stand movement might be a result of dynamic optimization.