This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.
Yeshayahu Hutzler and Devora Hellerstein
Yeshayahu Shayke Hutzler
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a growing movement in the health and educational disciplines that recommends emphasis on research outcomes during decision making in practice. EBP is made possible through evidence based research (EBR), which attempts to synthesize the volume and scientific rigor of intervention effectiveness. With the purpose of assessing the impact of this movement on adapted physical activity, this article (a) describes EBP/EBR and outlines its methodological development, (b) provides an historical perspective of EBP/EBR in APA, (c) examines EBR quality indicators in the review literature published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, (d) identifies and synthesizes thematic domains appearing in these review articles, and (e) discusses practical examples of professional issues in APA arising from a lack of EBR.
Yeshayahu Hutzler and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen’s social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Colin Higgs, and David Legg
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Yves Vanlandewijck, and Monica Van Vlierberghe
The purpose was to compare the anaerobic performance of male and female wheelchair basketball players in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), performed on a mobile wheelchair ergometer. Participants were 10 female and 10 male wheelchair basketball players, aged 39 to 56, from a provincial wheelchair basketball team. Variables measured included peak and mean velocity and power, as well as the fatigue indices. Test-retest reliability, based on 13 participants (7 males and 6 females), ranged from .88 to .95 for peak and mean power and velocity variables and from .40 to .62 for the fatigue indices. Findings for the sample of 20 indicated that (a) males had significantly higher peak and mean velocity and power than females, and (b) females had significantly higher velocity fatigue indices than males.
Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler, and Adri Vermeer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Martin Grunze, and Rolf Kaiser
Eleven male elite wheelchair basketball players took part in an all-out, high-velocity, “Wingate”-type ergometric test lasting 30 s. An electrically braked and electronically controlled roller device was used to measure power and velocity. A breath-by-breath metabolic measurement cart collected net O2 uptake prior to, during, and after the test. Average braking load and velocity were 9.91 N · m and 5.09 m · s-1, respectively. Mean total work during the test was 4,468.47 ± 1,326 J. Based on net O2 cost and estimating a 10% efficiency, the aerobic contribution would be 29.8 ± 10.2%. Therefore, performance in this test seems to be predominantly anaerobic. Velocity variables of the subjects included in this study had a significant relationship to power variables and thus are considered valid for measuring peak performance, mean performance, and fatigue. A regression analysis utilizing wheel size and function as independent variables presented a significant relationship to peak velocity (P <.005). Further findings indicated variability in technique among subjects that led to training suggestions.