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Yilin Li and Weidong Li

Purpose: The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on caring in physical education and physical activity settings with a goal of identifying the status, gaps, and future trends of research on ethic of care in our field. Methods and Data Analysis: The authors identified and coded 16 peer-reviewed and data-based articles with a coding template from six databases. For each of the coding categories, frequencies and percentages were calculated. Results: Physical education teachers valued the importance of being caring. The perceived caring climate or perception of caring behaviors was positively related to a number of motivational, cognitive, and emotional variables in physical education or physical activity settings. Discussion and Conclusion: Research on caring in our field is still in its infancy. Noddings argues that caring is the end in and of itself. This philosophical belief of caring as an end in and of itself needs further examination. The review of literature showed that the majority of studies had solely focused on caring as a means to an end. This is misaligned with the work of Noddings. More experimental research with a rigorous design and appropriate statistical modeling for data analysis are needed. Future research shall also examine other students’ behaviors and learning outcome variables. The teaching pedagogies and practices identified in these qualitative studies can help guide physical education teachers to enact a caring-based curriculum.

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Weidong Li, Ping Xiang, Yung-Ju Chen, Xiuye Xie and Yilin Li


The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide recommendations for future field-based intervention research and related statistical analysis.


We identified and coded 50 peer-reviewed, field-based intervention research articles with a coding template, published in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from 1998 to January 2016.


Our findings showed that 60% of the articles disregarded the unit of analysis and 80% of the articles applied the interventions to classes/groups, but used individual students as unit of analysis. Eight statistical modeling and analysis approaches were used to address the unit of analysis issue.


These findings provide first empirical evidence that the Silverman and Solmon 1998 article had limited impact on how researchers handle unit of analysis in their field-based intervention research in physical education. This suggests that the issue of unit of analysis remains largely unsolved. To address this problem, two experimental designs and corresponding statistical analysis methods were recommended.

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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su

Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.