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Dahai Yu, Ying Chen, Tao Chen, Yamei Cai, Rui Qin, Zhixin Jiang and Zhanzheng Zhao

Background: Chronic kidney disease is common and brings significant health burden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and kidney function. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study set in the Nanjing Community Cardiovascular Risk Survey, using random cluster sampling. Questionnaires were completed, wherever possible, through face-to-face interviews. Data on age, sex, body mass index, weekly physical activity, and kidney function were collected. Physical activity was measured by the metabolic equivalent of task-minutes per week and grouped into “walking,” “moderate,” and “vigorous” according to intensity. Kidney function was measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, in mL/min/1.73 m2). Regression modeling was used to investigate the proposed relationship with adjustment for other confounding factors. Results: A total of 5824 participants were included, with an average age of 52; 44% were male. The eGFR in average was 76 mL/min/1.73 m2, with 19% ≥ 90, 67% between 60 and 89, and 14% < 60. In average, the total physical activity during a week was 3644 MET-minutes per week. Moderate activity contributed 64% of the total activity, followed by walking (23%) and vigorous activity (13%). Overall, the total activity was weakly associated with eGFR (P = .039). However, in stratified analysis, only walking-related activity was associated with eGFR (P < .0001) after confounding adjustment. Conclusions: Walking is associated with improved kidney function.

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Ying Hwa Kee, Iti Chaturvedi, Chee Keng John Wang and Lung Hung Chen

The capacity for random movement production is known to be limited in humans (e.g., Newell, Deutsch, & Morrison, 2000). We examined the effects of a brief mindfulness induction on random movement production because there are useful implications for variability in solving movement-related problems. The main task involved randomly clicking the 9 boxes in a 3 × 3 grid presented on a computer screen for five minutes. We characterized the sequence of clicking in terms of degrees of randomness, or periodicity, based on the fit, or probability, of the experimental data with its best fitting Bayesian network (4-click memory nodes) using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. Sixty-three participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control condition. Mixed design repeated-measures ANOVA results show that the short mindfulness induction had a positive effect on the randomness of the sequence subsequently produced. This finding suggests that mindfulness may be a suitable strategy for increasing random movement behavior.

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Chiao-Nan Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang, Mallikarjuna Korivi and Ying-Tai Wu

Background:

This study investigated the differences in exercise self-efficacy, compliance, and effectiveness of home-based exercise in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods:

One hundred and ten individuals at risk for diabetes participated in this study. Subjects were categorized into individuals with MetS and individuals without MetS. Metabolic risk factors and exercise self-efficacy were evaluated for all subjects before and after 3 months of home-based exercise. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program between individuals with and without MetS.

Results:

The home-based exercise program improved body mass index and lipid profile in individuals at risk for diabetes, regardless of MetS status at baseline. Individuals without MetS had higher exercise self-efficacy at baseline and performed greater exercise volume compared with individuals with MetS during the intervention. The increased exercise volume in individuals without MetS may contribute to their better control of insulin resistance than individuals with MetS. Furthermore, baseline exercise self-efficacy was correlated with exercise volume executed by subjects at home.

Conclusions:

We conclude that home-based exercise programs are beneficial for individuals at risk for diabetes. However, more intensive and/or supervised exercise intervention may be needed for those with MetS.

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Yi-Ming Huang, Ya-Ju Chang, Miao-Ju Hsu, Chia-Ling Chen, Chia-Ying Fang and Alice May-Kuen Wong

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether agonist muscle fatigue changed the coactivation time and the co-contraction magnitude of the agonist and antagonist muscle, and if the agonist muscle fatigue produced bias (constant error: CE) and inconsistency (variable error: VE) of the force. Subjects are 10 healthy people and one person with impaired proprioception. EMG and force for fast (0.19 ± 0.06 s) and slow (1.20 ± 0.44 s) targeted isometric dorsiflexions were recorded before and after fatigue of the dorsiflexors. The results revealed that the coactivation time increased after fatigue only in the slow contractions but the co-contraction magnitude did not change. The postfatigue increment of the CE was greater in the fast contractions than in the slow ones. We conclude that the postfatigue compensatory strategy can reduce the fatigue-induced bias. The change of muscles activation level after fatigue might be under the influence of the common drive. Impaired proprioception is a possible cause of the fatigue-related increase in bias and inconsistency.

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Ching-yi Wu, Shih-han Chou, Mei-ying Kuo, Chiung-ling Chen, Tung-wu Lu and Yang-chieh Fu

Stroke patients are often left with hemiplegia or hemiparesis of the upper extremities, severely limiting the ability to perform bimanual and functional activities. No studies have investigated how stroke patients adapt their movements to changes in object size in functionally asymmetric bimanual tasks. The influence of object size on intralimb and interlimb coordination during an asymmetrical, functional bimanual task was examined in patients with left cerebral vascular accidents (LCVA) and healthy controls. Fourteen LCVA patients and 13 age-matched controls were instructed to reach to grasp a large and a small jar with the right/affected hand and to open the cap with the other hand. Movement kinematics was analyzed for intralimb coordination (spatial and temporal planning of reaching and grasping) and interlimb coordination (bimanual synchronization and temporal association of the hands). The results demonstrate a spatial adaptation of reaching in the affected hand to the object size and deficits in temporal planning of grasping with the affected hand to object size in the stroke patients. Movement adaptations of the unaffected hand in the stroke patients were similar to those in the healthy adults. Bimanual coordination was independent of object size for both groups.

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Ying Hwa Kee, Nikos N.L.D. Chatzisarantis, Pui Wah Kong, Jia Yi Chow and Lung Hung Chen

We examined whether the momentary induction of state mindfulness benefited subsequent balance performance, taking into consideration the effects of dispositional mindfulness. We also tested whether our mindfulness induction, grounded in sustaining moment-to-moment attention, influenced the attentional focus strategies that were adopted by the participants during the balancing task. Balance performance was ascertained based on approximate entropy (ApEn) of the center of pressure (COP) data. The study involved 32 males (age: M = 22.8, SD = 1.94) who were randomly assigned to the mindfulness or control group. Using difference in pretest to posttest performance based on the medio-lateral movements as the dependent variable, the test for interaction showed that the mindfulness induction was more effective for participants with higher dispositional mindfulness. Participants who underwent mindfulness induction also reported greater use of external focus strategies than those in the control group. Results suggest that momentary mindful attention could benefit balance performance and affect the use of attentional focus strategies during movement control.

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Peter S.W. Davies, Jian-Ying Feng, J. Anthony Crisp, Janice M.E. Day, Ann Laidlaw, Jidi Chen and Xiao-Peng Liu

The energy expenditure and hence energy requirements of 12 young Chinese gymnasts attending a specialized school in Beijing were assessed. Total energy expenditure was measured using the doubly labeled water technique and this, in conjunction with measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR), allows the calculation of a physical activity level (PAL). Mean PAL value for the gymnasts was 1.98, which is significantly different from published mean values found in nongymnast children of a similar age. This mean value is equivalent to very heavy levels of physical activity during the periods of training being undertaken. This is the first time that energy expenditure has been noninvasively measured in free-living young gymnasts. The data will be of use to sports scientists and nutritionists alike.

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Yang Liu, Yan Tang, Zhen-Bo Cao, Pei-Jie Chen, Jia-Lin Zhang, Zheng Zhu, Jie Zhuang, Yang Yang and Yue-Ying Hu

Background:

Internationally comparable evidence is important to advocate for young people’s physical activity. The aim of this article is to present the inaugural Shanghai (China) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

Methods:

Since no national data are available, the working group developed the survey questionnaire and carried out the school surveys for students (n = 71,404), parents (n = 70,346), and school administrators and teachers (n = 1398). The grades of 9 report card indicators were assigned in accordance with the survey results against a defined benchmark: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%.

Results:

The 9 indicators were graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity Levels (F), Organized Sport Participation (F), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C-), Sedentary Behavior (F), Family and Peers (B), School (B+), Community and the Built Environment (D+), and Government (D).

Conclusions:

Levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior were low and below the respective recommended guidelines. Interventions and policies at the community level should be encouraged to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Future national surveys should be encouraged to strengthen Shanghai’s Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.