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Tommy Haugen, Yngvar Ommundsen and Stephen Seiler

The aim of this study was to investigate if physical fitness (strength/power, endurance, flexibility and coordination) mediates the cross-sectional relationship between physical activity and physical self-perception (athletic competence and physical appearance) in a sample of 15-year old adolescents. We wanted to investigate the relative strength of each indirect effect. The present data are taken from two waves of a larger data collection for the project “Youth in Balance”, and was collected in the autumn of 2005 (N = 1207) and 2008 (N = 632). A total of 1839 students (889 girls and 950 boys) from 12 schools in Kristiansand took part. A bias-corrected bootstrapping technique was used to examine indirect effects. Results revealed that cardiovascular endurance, lower-body strength/power, and upper-body strength stood out as unique mediators in the relationship between physical activity and athletic competence in both genders. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of physical activity on physical appearance through physical strength/power and flexibility in males. No indirect effects of physical activity on physical appearance through actual physical fitness indices were detected in females.

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Paul A. Solberg, Hallgeir Halvari, Yngvar Ommundsen and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of three types of training on well-being and frequency of physical activity and to determine whether preintervention motivation moderates the effects.

Methods:

Sixty-two older adults (M = 75 years old, SD = 5; 61% women) completed 4-mo programs of endurance, functional or strength training, with reassessment of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, vitality) and physical activity 12 mo later.

Results:

All groups showed small improvements in most measures of well-being at 4 mo. At follow-up, endurance training still had small beneficial effects, while changes with functional and strength training were generally trivial or harmful. Analysis for moderators indicated that autonomously motivated individuals better maintained gains in well-being and had higher frequencies of physical activity at follow-up compared with controlled individuals.

Conclusion:

Endurance training is recommended for older adults, but the long-term outcomes depend on the individual’s motivational regulation at commencement.

Open access

Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between giving empowering and disempowering sports coaching to young athletes and coaches’ well-being across the season. The sample comprised 169 Norwegian youth football (i.e., European soccer) coaches with a mean age of 41.99 (SD = 6.32). Moreover, we were interested in examining heterogeneous groups of coaches showing variability in their self-reporting of empowering and disempowering behaviors towards their athletes. Thus, a person-centered approach was used. The latent profile analysis revealed three distinct profiles and the association between these profiles and coaches’ well-being was in line with the outlined hypotheses. Specifically, coaches who gave higher levels of empowering and lower levels of disempowering sports coaching to their athletes at the beginning of the season also reported higher levels of well-being at the end of the season. The results indicate that there exists an intrinsic value as to why coaches should give empowering sports coaching, as opposed to disempowering sports coaching, to their athletes; namely, these actions may be advantageous in terms of improving their own well-being. In practical terms, future coach education may take advantage of these findings by providing coaches another reason for coaching in an empowering manner.