The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences is well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity, such as visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular adipose tissue, and/or intramyocellular lipid content. Limited evidence suggests that both aerobic and resistance exercise alone, independent of weight loss, can be an effective therapeutic strategy for improving risk markers of metabolic abnormalities as well as inducing positive changes in depot-specific body adiposity in obese children and adolescents. However, the independent role of exercise alone (without calorie restriction) in body fat distribution is still unclear, and the results are less conclusive in pediatrics. In this brief review, the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on depot-specific body adiposity changes in children and adolescents are discussed.
Yoonsuk Jekal, YoonMyung Kim, Ji Eun Yun, Eun Sung Kim, Masayo Naruse, Ji Hye Park, Dong Hoon Lee, Seung-youn Hong, Sun Ha Jee and Justin Y. Jeon
Few studies have been conducted to explore the associations of fatness and fitness during adolescence with risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during adulthood, particularly in Asians.
Adolescent anthropometric and fitness data were collected during the participants’ high school years (N = 15,896) and their corresponding health examination data from adulthood were taken from the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) in Korea. A total of 1,006 participants (6.3%) were analyzed in the study.
The odds ratios (ORs) for being overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) during adulthood was 11.87 (95% CI: 4.19–33.59) in men and 8.44 (95% CI: 1.78–40.02) in women, respectively, in the fattest group vs. the leanest group during adolescence. Participants with low fitness levels during adolescence were more likely to be overweight and have abnormal MetS risk factors in adulthood vs. those with high fitness levels. Joint exposure analyses of fatness and fitness showed that male participants who were more fat and unfit during adolescence had 4.11 (95% CI: 1.19–14.14) and 3.04 (95% CI: 1.17–11.12) times higher risk of having abnormal glucose and MetS risks during adulthood, respectively.
Fatness and fitness levels during adolescence appear to be significantly associated with the MetS risk factors and prevalence in adulthood in Koreans.