Body water and electrolyte balance are essential to optimal physiological function and health. During exercise, work, or high temperatures, a significant level of dehydration can develop, and the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid can change, despite an ample supply of water. Physical and cognitive performance are impaired at 1-2% dehydration, and the body can collapse when water loss approaches 7%. Because fluid needs and intakes vary, formulating one general guideline for fluid replacement is difficult. Knowing the amount of water lost in sweat may enable predicting fluid needs via mathematical models for industrial, athletic, and military scenarios. Sodium imbalance might result from excessive Na+ loss or from gross o verity dration. In most work or exercise lasting < 3-4 hr, the major concern is that fluid be available to prevent heat-related illnesses, which can be prevented if fluid and electrolyte losses are balanced with intake, using the recommendations presented.
Yoram Epstein and Lawrence E. Armstrong
Daniel S. Moran, Tomer Erlich and Yoram Epstein
Individuals in the population who are not able to sustain heat and whose body temperature will start rising earlier and at a higher rate than that of others, under the same conditions, are defined as “heat intolerant.”
The applicability of the heat tolerance test (HTT) in identifying individuals’ tolerance/intolerance to heat is presented.
HTT is performed according to the following protocol: 120 minutes exposure to 40°C and 40% relative humidity in a climatic chamber while walking on a treadmill, dressed in shorts and T-shirt, at a pace of 5 km/h and 2% elevation. Rectal temperature and heart rate are continuously monitored, and sweat rate is calculated.
Results and Conclusion:
The HTT that is based on controlled exposure to an exercise-heat stress is an applicable and an efficient tool in differentiating between a temporary and permanent state of heat susceptibility.