Context: Lower-extremity stress fractures (SFx) are a common occurrence during load-bearing activities of jumping and landing. To detect biomechanical changes during jumping postinjury, a fatigue model could be used. Objective: To evaluate muscle activation in the lower leg and tibial accelerations (TAs) prefatigue to postfatigue following a jumping task in those with and without a history of SFx. Design: Repeated-measures. Setting: Athletic Training Research Lab. Participants: A total of 30 active college-aged students with and without a history of lower-extremity (leg or foot) SFx (15 males and 15 females; 21.5 [5.04] y, height = 173.5 [12.7] cm, weight = 72.65 [16.4] kg). Intervention: A maximal vertical jump on one leg 3 times with arms folded across the chest prefatigue to postfatigue was performed. Fatigue protocol was standing heel raises on a custom-built platform at a pace controlled by a metronome until task failure was reached. Legs were tested using a randomized testing order. Electromyographic (EMG) surface electrodes were placed on the medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior following a standardized placement protocol. A triaxial accelerometer was attached to the proximal anteromedial surface of the tibia. Main Outcome Measures: Linear envelopes of the medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior and peak accelerations (resultant acceleration takeoff and landing).Results: Significant interaction for leg × test for tibialis anterior with a posttest difference between SFx and control (P = .05). There were decreases in EMG linear envelope following fatigue for medial gastrocnemius (P < .01) and tibialis anterior (P = .12) pretest to posttest. At takeoff, TA was greater in the SFx contralateral leg in comparison with the control leg (P = .04). At landing, TA was greater in posttest (P < .01) and in the SFx leg compared with SFx contralateral (P = .14). Conclusion: A decrease in muscle activity and an increase in TA following fatigue were noted for all subjects but especially for those with a history of SFx.
Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory
Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang
This study examines the effect of a 12-week multicomponent exercise intervention on metacognition among preadolescents with obesity. Seventy-five preadolescents were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent exercise group or a reading control group. An exercise intervention consisting of a jumping rope was utilized to develop multifaceted fitness features, with each session lasting for 75 min and three sessions being conducted per week for 12 weeks. Results revealed significant interactions between group and time point for cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, and power, as well as for Tower of London task measures, including total move score, total executive time, and total planning-solving time, with better postintervention performances achieved by the exercise group. Positive correlations between the physical fitness and metacognition measurements were also observed. These findings suggest that the multicomponent exercise benefits metacognition in obese preadolescents, with exercise-associated changes in multifaceted fitness features mediating the relationship between exercise and metacognition.