This study evaluated the impact of two simple interventions aimed at promoting stair use among female employees at a five-floor worksite. The first intervention involved a “health” sign that linked stair use to health and fitness; it was placed at the junction between the staircase and the elevator. The second intervention involved an additional e-mail sent a week later by the worksite’s doctor, pointing out the health benefits of regular stair use. Stair use increased significantly from 69% at baseline to 77% in the week after the first intervention, 2 (1) = 12.97, p < .001. Moreover, compared with the first intervention, stair use increased significantly to 85% in the week after the second intervention, 2 (1) = 15.58, p < .001. However, stair use decreased to 67% in a follow-up one month after the sign was removed, and was not significantly different from baseline, 2 (1) = 0.41, p = .52. These results suggest that simple and inexpensive interventions such as a health sign in combination with an e-mail sent by the worksite’s doctor can encourage female employees to use the stairs. However, it appears that sustained effort is needed to consolidate these effects.
Yves Vanden Auweele, Filip Boen, Wanda Schapendonk and Karen Dornez
Veerle Van Mele, Yves Vanden Auweele and Randy Rzewnicki
Making diagnoses is essential if one is to provide a meaningful service to clients, in sport psychology or elsewhere. Discussion of this topic in the sport psychology literature is rare and is usually limited to the use of standardized questionnaires or unspecified interview techniques. A procedure for the diagnosis of an elite athlete is described and explained as a case study. Critical elements include (a) using an integrative diagnostic procedure where the results of one phase are used to guide the generation of further hypotheses and selection of diagnostic tools, (b) attending to an athlete’s strengths and deficiencies, (c) individualizing the procedure and materials and actively involving the athlete where appropriate, and (d) objectively examining interactions between the data at the individual level. Questionnaires, a grid, and a sequential analysis were integrated in phases to refine, confirm, contrast, and clarify points of action to optimize the athlete’s performance.
Paul Wylleman, Paul De Knop, Joke Delhoux and Yves Vanden Auweele
Academic background, consultation processes, and training and support were assessed with semistructured interviews among 18 sport psychology consultants (60% of total membership) of the Flemish Society of Sport Psychology. A total of 61% of consultants were trained as clinical psychologists, most with limited sport psychology background. Assessments revealed that interpersonal relationships skills and communication (63%) and fear of failure (55%) were the most common concerns, whereas stress management (54%), enhancement of relationship and communication skills (31%), and visualization and goal setting (31%) were used in interventions. Recommendations for enhancing the development of applied sport psychology in Flanders include specialization in sport psychology at the academic level, continued sport psychology consultation training, and a better coordination between sport psychology consultants and the world of sports.
Yves Vanden Auweele, Filip Boen, Annick De Geest and Jos Feys
The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the open feedback system used in synchronized swimming (i.e., the judges hear and see each others’ scores after having rated each performance) leads to unwanted (i.e., nonperformance-based) conformity in the scoring by judges. Twenty judges in synchronized swimming were randomly divided into four panels of five judges. They had to rate 60 performances of the same imposed figure, the barracuda twirl: 30 performances in Phase 1 and 30 in Phase 2. Two independent variables were orthogonally manipulated: feedback (or none) during Phase 1 and feedback (or none) during Phase 2. In line with the hypotheses, the variation of scores given in Phase 1 was significantly smaller when the judges had received feedback than when they had not received feedback. Moreover, the variation of the scores given in Phase 2 remained significantly smaller among the judges who had received feedback in Phase 1 but not in Phase 2, compared with judges who had not received feedback in either phase. These results indicate that the scoring of judges in synchronized swimming is strongly and lastingly influenced by immediate feedback.