This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p < .001). Higher ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) levels were measured after exercise with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.
David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot
David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial determined if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato complex with lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) and other compounds for 4 weeks would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress postexercise and during recovery from a 2-hr running bout that included 30 min of −10% downhill running. Study participants ingested the T-LPP supplement or placebo with the evening meal for 4 weeks prior to running 2 hr at high intensity. Blood samples and delayed onset muscle soreness ratings were taken pre- and post-4-week supplementation, and immediately following the 2-hr run, and then 1-hr, 24-hr, and 48-hr postrun. After a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the opposite treatment and repeated all procedures. Plasma lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene increased significantly in T-LPP compared with placebo (p < .001 for each). Significant time effects were shown for serum creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids, ferric reducing ability of plasma, and six plasma cytokines (p < .001 for each). The pattern of increase for serum myoglobin differed between T-LPP and placebo (interaction effect, p = .016, with lower levels in T-LPP), but not for creatine kinase, delayed onset muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, the six cytokines, 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids, and ferric reducing ability of plasma. No significant time or interaction effects were measured for plasma-oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. In summary, supplementation with T-LPP over a 4-week period increased plasma carotenoid levels 73% and attenuated postexercise increases in the muscle damage biomarker myoglobin, but not inflammation and oxidative stress.