Zhang Ying, Liu Dong Ning and Liu Xin
Seldom studies are about the relationship between built environment and physical activity, weight, and health outcome in meso- and microscales.
1100 residents aged 46 to 80 were recruited from 80 neighborhoods of 13 selected communities of Shanghai, China. An analysis of the relationship between dependent variables (physical activity, Body Mass Index [BMI], overweight/obesity, weight, and health outcomes) and independent variables (involved a geographic-information-system-derived measure of built environment) was conducted with hierarchical linear models.
Street connectivity was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01). River proximity was inversely related with overweight/obesity (P = .0220). Parkland and square proximity have a significant relationship with physical activity (P = .0270, .0010), BMI (P = .0260, .0130), and overweight/obesity (P = .0020, .0470). Land-use mix was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01) and inversely associated with BMI (P = .0240) and overweight/obesity (P = .0440). Green and open spaces were positively related with BMI (P < .01) and health status (P < .01). For residential style, residents living in a village were more likely to have a lower BMI and overweight/obesity than those living in an urban old or newer residential building. The direct effect of square proximity is much stronger than the indirect effect on BMI through physical activity.
The findings can help planners build more pedestrian-friendly communities. They are also useful for creating interventions that are sensitive to possible environmental barriers to physical activity in older adults.
Zhongren Sun, Xiaoning Li, Zhiqiang Su, Ying Zhao, Li Zhang and Mingyuan Wu
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated into neuronal cells and are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI).
This study investigated whether electroacupuncture enhances BMSC’s effects on SCI in rats.
The effects of transplantation of phosphate-buffered saline or BMSC, electroacupuncture, and a combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture on SCI were evaluated using a combined behavioral score (CBS). Expressions of neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and gliocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of transplanted BMSC were detected using immunohistochemistry to assess the effect of electroacupuncture on differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells.
The combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture significantly alleviated CBS in rats with SCI compared with the separate treatment of BMSC or electroacupuncture. In addition, electroacupuncture increased the NSE- and GFAP-positive transplanted BMSCs in spinal cord.
Combined treatment showed a better effect, and the mechanisms may be partially caused by enhanced differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells. Future studies are needed to confirm this.
Yang Liu, Yan Tang, Zhen-Bo Cao, Pei-Jie Chen, Jia-Lin Zhang, Zheng Zhu, Jie Zhuang, Yang Yang and Yue-Ying Hu
Internationally comparable evidence is important to advocate for young people’s physical activity. The aim of this article is to present the inaugural Shanghai (China) Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.
Since no national data are available, the working group developed the survey questionnaire and carried out the school surveys for students (n = 71,404), parents (n = 70,346), and school administrators and teachers (n = 1398). The grades of 9 report card indicators were assigned in accordance with the survey results against a defined benchmark: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%.
The 9 indicators were graded as follows: Overall Physical Activity Levels (F), Organized Sport Participation (F), Active Play (D-), Active Transportation (C-), Sedentary Behavior (F), Family and Peers (B), School (B+), Community and the Built Environment (D+), and Government (D).
Levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior were low and below the respective recommended guidelines. Interventions and policies at the community level should be encouraged to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Future national surveys should be encouraged to strengthen Shanghai’s Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.