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John B. Bartholomew, Alexandra Loukas, Esbelle M. Jowers and Shane Allua

Background:

Design and evaluation of physical activity interventions depends upon valid instruments to assess mediating processes. The Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Scale (PASES) has been used in a variety of forms within samples of African American and Caucasian children.

Method:

This study was designed to extend the statistical validity of the scores from the PASES by comparing 1 and 3-factor models and testing measurement invariance between Hispanic and Caucasian children. 883 fourth and fifth graders were recruited (mean age, 9.71 y; 48% female, 52% male; 67% Hispanic, 33% Caucasian). The factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis, using two-group analyses to model ethnic differences.

Results:

The 17-item, 3-factor version of the PASES evidenced poor fit with the data. In contrast, an 8-item, 1-factor solution provided adequate fit for both samples.

Conclusions:

The 8-item, 1-factor version of the PASES provides statistically valid scores for Hispanic and Caucasian children.

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Anna E. Mathews, Sarah B. Laditka, James N. Laditka, Sara Wilcox, Sara J. Corwin, Rui Liu, Daniela B. Friedman, Rebecca Hunter, Winston Tseng and Rebecca G. Logsdon

This study identified perceived physical activity (PA) enablers and barriers among a racially/ethnically and geographically diverse group of older adults. Data were from 42 focus groups conducted with African Americans, American Indians, Latinos, Chinese, Vietnamese, and non-Hispanic Whites (hereafter Whites). Constant-comparison methods were used to analyze the data. Common barriers were health problems, fear of falling, and inconvenience. Common enablers were positive outcome expectations, social support, and PA program access. American Indians mentioned the built environment and lack of knowledge about PA as barriers and health benefits as an enabler more than participants in other groups. Whites and American Indians emphasized the importance of PA programs specifically designed for older adults. Findings suggest several ways to promote PA among older people, including developing exercise programs designed for older adults and health messages promoting existing places and programs older adults can use to engage in PA.

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Matthew J. Taylor, Rachel A. Wamser, Michelle E. Sanchez and Charleanea M. Arellano

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of sports participation and race/ethnicity on violence and victimization among a sample of white, African American, and Hispanic rural-area high school girls. It was hypothesized that girls who participated in sports would report lower rates of violent behavior and fewer incidents of victimization. Using logistic regression and multivariate analysis of variance, evidence for the hypotheses was mixed and appeared to be related to the type of violence and victimization. Sports participants were less likely to engage in general violence and reported less physical and sexual victimization, but did not experience less intimate partner violence victimization. Conversely, sports participants were more likely to engage in verbal and physical reactive violence. While sports participation may have some preventative impact on violence and victimization, this relationship may also be influenced by community characteristics and not a universal outcome.

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Brett D. Johnson and Norris R. Johnson

One explanation for stacking in sports is that minorities are excluded from positions with the greatest opportunity for determining the outcome of the competition, with the place kicker in football cited as an example. This paper postulated that the short relief pitcher in baseball also has high outcome control, and it hypothesized that minorities would be underrepresented in that position as well. We classified major league pitchers from the 1992 and 1993 seasons as starters, stoppers, or others and tested whether race or ethnicity was a factor in assignment to these positions. The hypothesis was not supported for either African American or Latin American pitchers. Minority group members were equally underrepresented in all categories of the pitcher position.

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Russell R. Pate, Rebecca Ross, Marsha Dowda, Stewart G. Trost and John R. Sirard

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) self-report instrument in a sample of eighth and ninth grade girls (n = 70, 54.3% white, 37.1% African American). Criterion measures of physical activity were derived using the CSA 7164 accelerometer. Participants wore a CSA monitor for 7 consecutive days and completed the self-report physical activity recall for the last 3 of those days. Self-reported total METs, 30-min blocks of MVPA, and 30-min blocks of VPA were all significantly correlated with analogous CSA variables for 7 days (r = 0.35–0.51; P < 0.01) and 3 days (r = 0.27–0.46; P < 0.05) of monitoring. The results indicate that the 3DPAR is a valid instrument for assessing overall, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity in adolescent girls.

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Matthew P. Martens, Joanna Buscemi, Ashley E. Smith and James G. Murphy

Background:

Research has shown that many college students do not meet recommended national guidelines for physical activity. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the short-term efficacy of a brief motivational intervention (BMI) designed to increase physical activity.

Methods:

Participants were 70 college students who reported low physical activity (83% women, 60% African American). Participants were randomly assigned to either the BMI condition or to an education-only (EO) condition. They completed measures of physical activity at baseline and 1-month follow-up.

Results:

Those in the BMI condition reported more vigorous-intensity physical activity at a 1-month follow-up than those in the EO condition.

Conclusions:

The findings from this study provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a BMI designed to increase physical activity among college students. Future studies should continue to examine and refine the intervention in an effort to improve health-related behaviors among this group.

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Jeffrey Montez de Oca

This article looks at the Hollywood “blockbuster” movie The Blind Side (2009) to explore intersections of race, class, and gender in a significant neoliberal, cultural commodity. Animating the production and, apparently, the consumption of the film is the “inspiring” story of Michael Oher, an impoverished young African American man who was adopted by a wealthy white family and rose to success in the National Football League in the United States. The film mobilizes postracial and postfeminist discourses to tell a story of redemption and how private charity can overcome social problems that the state cannot. Ultimately, charity operates as a signifying act of whiteness that obscures the social relations of domination that not only make charity possible but also creates an urban underclass in need of charity.

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Paul M. Wright and Suzanne Burton

Underserved youth are at risk for numerous threats to their physical and psychological well-being. To navigate the challenges they face, they need a variety of positive life skills. This study systematically explored the implementation and short-term outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program that was integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Qualitative methods, drawing on multiple data sources, were used to evaluate a 20-lesson teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) program. Participants were 23 African American students in an urban high school. Five themes characterized the program: (a) establishing a relevant curriculum, (b) navigating barriers, (c) practicing life skills, (d) seeing the potential for transfer, and (e) creating a valued program. Findings extend the empirical literature related to TPSR and, more generally, physical activity programs designed to promote life skills. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

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Katherine M. Jamieson, Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill

Differential treatment by race has been documented in sport, including the opportunity to occupy specific positions. Few researchers have examined the theoretical fit of stacking in women’s sport contexts. Moreover, the three published studies of stacking in women’s athletics were examinations of positional segregation for white and African American women only. Binary conceptions of race are no longer sufficient to explain the complexity of power relations that are visible through phenomena such as stacking. This study focused on the stacking of four major racial groups in NCAA Division I softball. Based upon the results, we suggest that stacking of racial-ethnic minority women may occur in patterns different from those identified in previous stacking studies.

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Frank M. Perna, Rebecca L. Ahlgren and Leonard Zaichkowsky

Collegiate male athletes and nonathletes’ (N = 76) level of life satisfaction was assessed at termination of their collegiate careers, and further analyses indicated the degree of association between athletic injury history and life satisfaction after accounting for demographic and career-planning variables. While no significant Group or Group by Race interaction effects were found, life satisfaction was significantly lower among African American students. Regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, further indicated that athletes who had sustained a severe athletic injury were no less satisfied with life than noninjured and moderately injured athletes. However, athletes who could state a postcollegiate occupational plan were significantly more satisfied with life than those who were unable to indicate such a goal. Results suggest that the role of athletic participation and athletic injury with respect to life satisfaction may have been overemphasized. The potential role of career planning in understanding termination from collegiate sport is discussed.