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Déirdre Ní Chróinín and Mary O’Sullivan

This longitudinal research explored beginning elementary classroom teachers’ beliefs about learning to teach physical education (PE) across time. Understanding how beliefs shape the process of learning to teach PE can inform the design of more impactful physical education teacher education (PETE). We mapped beliefs over six years including the three years of an undergraduate elementary teacher education program and the first three years teaching in schools through reflective writing tasks and semistructured interviews. Across time these beginning teachers believed that learning to teach PE required active participation in PE content, building of a resource bank of content ideas, and practice of teaching the content. Building competence in PE content through active participation combined with development of more complex understandings of PE content through PETE pedagogies can better support elementary teachers learning to teach PE.

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Xiaofen D. Keating, Ke Zhou, Jingwen Liu, Rulan Shangguan, Yao Fan and Louis Harrison

The purposes of this project were to conduct an overall review of research on preservice physical education (PE) teacher (referred to preservice PE teachers as preservice specialist) and/or preservice elementary teacher (referred to preservice elementary teachers as preservice generalist) PE identities and to identify any new trends in research on the topic. Studies were selected for analysis through searches of databases in English without time limits. In total, 27 articles were identified including 14 data-based studies. The majority of the selected studies (85.7%) employed qualitative methods. Research on the topic was not dominated by any single country. The focus of previous research was centered on determinants of preservice specialists’ PE identity construction such as PE coursework and student teaching. Information about the development and measurement of PE identity among preservice specialists and generalists is still sparse. More research on examining the complexity, nurturing, and reshaping of PE identities is needed.

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Brandon L. Alderman, Tami Benham-Deal, Aaron Beighle, Heather E. Erwin and Ryan L. Olson

Little is known about the exact contribution of physical education (PE) to total daily physical activity (PA) among children and adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the PA of middle school students during PE and non-PE days and determine if children would compensate for a lack of PE by increasing their PA later in the day. Two hundred seventy nine students (159 boys, 120 girls) wore pedometers (Walk4Life LS252, Plainfield, IL) during 5 school days, with at least two of the days including scheduled PE. The least (~1,575; 31% increase), moderately (~2,650; 20% increase), and most highly active students (~5,950; 34% increase) accumulated significantly more daily step counts on days when they participated in PE. Nearly three times the percent of boys (37%) and more than two times the percent of girls (61%) met the recommended steps/day guidelines on days when PE was offered. Rather than a compensatory effect, the most highly active students were more active on school days with PE, even after accounting for the steps they accrued in PE. The evidence is consistent with other studies that have found that PE contributes meaningfully to daily PA, that youth do not compensate when they are not provided opportunities to be physically active in school-based programs, and some youth are stimulated to be more active when they participate in school-based PA programs.

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Monica A.F. Lounsbery, Thomas L. McKenzie, Stewart Trost and Nicole J. Smith

Background:

Evidence-based physical education (EBPE) programs have increased physical activity (PA) by as much as 18%, yet widespread adoption has not occurred. Understanding school facilitators and barriers to PE should prove useful to EBPE dissemination efforts.

Methods:

Pairs of principals and PE teachers from 154 schools (75 Adopters and 79 Non-Adopters) from 34 states completed questionnaires. Differences between Adopter and Non-Adopter schools were tested using t tests or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests and chi-square analyses.

Results:

Principals and teachers reported distinct PE curriculum adoption decision making roles, but few viewed themselves as very involved in program evaluation. Teachers in Adopter schools were more satisfied with PE program outcomes and had greater involvement in teacher evaluation and program decision making. Compared with teachers, principals were generally more satisfied with their school’s PE program outcomes and did not share the same perceptions of PE barriers. However, principals also demonstrated a general lack of PE program familiarity.

Conclusions:

To facilitate EBPE adoption, dissemination efforts should target both principals and PE teachers. Increasing principal’s knowledge may be instrumental in addressing some teacher perceptions of barriers to PE. Strategic advocacy efforts, including targeting policies that require PE program evaluation, are needed.

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Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Nanette Erkelenz, Dorothea Kesztyüs and Jürgen M. Steinacker

Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were determined and PA was individually calculated. Children spent 8.5 ± 7.3 minutes of each 45 minutes PE lesson in MVPA. Boys were significantly more active than girls (p ≤ .01). All children participated in 135 minutes PE/week, 32.7% were scheduled one double and one single PE-period. Children, with a double PE-period and one single lesson engaged in significantly less MVPA than children, who had three single periods of PE (6.7 ± 6.9 minutes/45 minutes vs. 9.4 ± 7.4 minutes/45 minutes, respectively; p ≤ .01) In conclusion, single periods of PE seem to be more effective in getting primary school children to engage in more MVPA than one double period per week.

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Melisa Comte, Erin Hobin, Steve Manske, Catherine Casey, Jane Griffith, Carly Leggett, Paul Veugelers, Donna Murnaghan and Jonathan McGavock

Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in physical education (PE) was associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels in adolescents.

Methods:

This was a cross sectional study comparing MVPA levels in senior-years students—grade 11 and 12—enrolled in high school PE during the semester data were collected compared with those not enrolled in PE in that same semester. The primary outcome measure was daily MVPA measured by accelerometry. The primary exposure was participation in PE.

Results:

Among the 508 adolescents (16.9 ± 0.8 yrs, 49% female, n = 338 exposed to PE) studied, no differences in MVPA (47.0 ± 25.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.0 mins/day, P = .25) or sedentary time (540.2 ± 94.7 vs. 550.2 ± 79.4 mins/day, P = .79) were noted between students enrolled in PE compared with students not enrolled in PE. Participation in PE was associated with a greater odds of achieving >60 minutes of MVPA daily (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04−2.75). This association was stronger among boys (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2−4.8) than girls (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 5−2.7).

Conclusion:

Enrollment in PE in grade 11 or 12 is associated with modestly higher levels of MVPA and an increased likelihood of meeting PA guidelines among students in grades 11 and 12, particularly among boys.

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Menno Slingerland and Lars Borghouts

Background:

Physical education (PE) has the potential of stimulating physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents in a direct and an indirect manner. By providing in-class activity, PE could directly contribute to the accumulation of physical activity. In addition, it is often claimed that PE could have an effect on physical activity by stimulating out-of-class activity, or even physical activity in adult life.

Methods:

We reviewed intervention studies using a PE component that directly or indirectly aimed to increase physical activity in primary and secondary school students. An electronic literature search was conducted and articles’ reference lists were scanned for additional papers.

Results:

Fourteen studies matched our criteria. A review of these studies showed that interventions are able to directly increase activity in PE classes with relatively simple modifications, whereas the evidence for increasing out-of-class PA through interventions utilizing PE as a component is less convincing.

Conclusions:

We propose that evidence-based interventions aimed at increasing PA in children and adolescents through PE should at this moment be aimed at the direct effect of PE. There is a need for high quality PE-based interventions directed at out-of-class activity and long-term active life style.

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Gail E. Webster

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of peer tutors on the academic learning time (ALT) of moderately/severely mentally handicapped students in adapted physical education. A multiple baseline-across-students and withdrawal design was used to analyze the effects of untrained and trained tutors on the ALT–PE of the students. Motor appropriate behavior was documented with the ALT–PE observation system (Siedentop, Tousignant, & Parker, 1982). Data were analyzed by visual inspection. It was concluded that the presence of peer tutors appeared to have a positive effect on the ALT–PE of mentally handicapped students. No differences were evident between untrained and trained tutors with respect to ALT–PE.

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

Control and Prevention growth charts for all participants ( CDC, 2014 ). Fundamental Motor Skills Two categories of FMS were assessed using the PE Metrics ™ ( National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2010 ): 1) locomotor skills including hopping and sliding; and 2) object

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Francesca Gallè, Valeria Di Onofrio, Fabio Barbone, Giorgio Brandi, Sebastiano Calimeri, Elisabetta Carraro, Federica Carraturo, Laura Dallolio, Concetta De Meo, Mauro De Santi, Guglielmina Fantuzzi, Francesca Fortunato, Ilaria Gorrasi, Marco Guida, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Erica Leoni, Daniela Lo Giudice, Liliana Minelli, Christian Napoli, Maria Parpinel, Cesira Pasquarella, Rosa Prato, Vincenzo Romano Spica, Carlo Signorelli, Silvio Tafuri, Federica Valeriani, Giorgio Liguori and Working Group “Movement Sciences for Health” of the Italian Society of Hygiene

Background:

Physical education (PE) can be considered an instrument for active lifestyle promotion, and PE teachers can motivate youths to continue their studies in the field of Movement Sciences (MS).

Methods:

To evaluate the role of PE in higher secondary school in promoting physical activity (PA) and MS careers, previous PE experiences and current PA practice were investigated in a sample of Italian freshmen enrolled in different university degree courses.

Results:

A total of 7033 questionnaires were completed by students from 14 universities (41.3% males, mean age 20 ± 2.76 years). Recreation seemed to be the principal aim (42.2%) pursued during PE lessons, which are based mainly on practical activities (51.7%). Of all respondents, 67.2% were satisfied with the PE received during higher secondary school, and 51.6% participated in extracurricular PA. Current practice of PA was reported by 58.1% of the sample. Extracurricular activities were associated with choice of MS curricula (odds ratio: 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.85–2.50) and with current practice of PA (odds ratio: 1.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.51–1.87). Geographical differences concerning lessons organization and satisfaction were registered (P < .01).

Conclusions:

To enhance its role in health promotion, PE teaching should be improved by increasing the time allocated to PE and by strengthening the provision of school-based extracurricular PA.